2010 California Residential Code
Building Standards Commission Logo

California Code of Regulations
Title 24, Part 2, Volume 2.5

California Building
Standards Commission

Based on the 2009 International Residential Code®

Public Domain Mark

EFFECTIVE DATE: January 1, 2011

(For Errata and supplements, See History Note Appendix)

Public Domain: U.S. Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, 99-40632

i

2010 California Residential Code
California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 2.5

First Printing: June 2010

ISBN 978-1 -58001-975-0

Copyright © 2010
Held by

California Building Standards Commission
2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130
Sacramento, CA 95833-2936

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2010 California Residential Code contains substantial copyrighted material from the 2009 International Residential Code, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233).

Trademarks: “International Code Council,” the “International Code Council” logo and the “International Residential Code” and trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc.

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

ii

PREFACE

This document is Part 2.5 of 12 parts of the official triennial compilation and publication of the adoptions, amendments and repeal of administrative regulations to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code. This part is known as the California Residential Code.

The California Building Standards Code is published in its entirety every three years by order of the California legislature, with supplements published in intervening years. The California legislature delegated authority to various State agencies, boards, commissions and departments to create building regulations to implement the State’s statutes. These building regulations or standards, have the same force of law, and take effect 180 days after their publication unless otherwise stipulated. The California Building Standards Code applies to occupancies in the State of California as annotated.

A city, county, or city and county may establish more restrictive building standards reasonably necessary because of local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. Findings of the local condition(s) and the adopted local building standard(s) must be filed with the California Building Standards Commission to become effective and may not be effective sooner than the effective date of this edition of the California Building Standards Code. Local building standards that were adopted and applicable to previous editions of the California Building Standards Code do not apply to this edition without appropriate adoption and the required filing.

Should you find publication (e.g., typographical) errors or inconsistencies in this code or wish to offer comments toward improving its format, please address your comments to:

California Building Standards Commission
2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130
Sacramento, CA 95833–2936

Phone: (916) 263-0916
FAX: (916) 263-0959

Web Page: www.bsc.ca.gov

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The 2010 California Building Standards Code (Code) was developed through the outstanding collaborative efforts of the Department of Housing and Community Development, the Division of State Architect, the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the California Energy Commission, and the Building Standards Commission (Commission).

This collaborative effort included the assistance of the Commission’s Code Advisory Committees and many other volunteers that worked tirelessly to assist the Commission in the production of this Code.

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger

Members of the Building Standards Commission

Acting Secretary Tom Sheehy – Chair

Isam Hasenin – Vice-Chair
James Barthman
Craig Daley
Susan Dowty
Tony Hoffman
Christina Jamison
Stephen Jensen
Michael Paravagna
Richard Sawhill
Steven Winkel

David Walls – Executive Director

Thomas Morrison – Deputy Executive Director

For questions on California state agency amendments; please refer to the contact list on the following page.

iii

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

California Agency Information Contact List

California Energy Commission
Energy Hotline(800) 772-3300
or (916) 654-5106
Building Efficiency Standards 
Appliance Efficiency Standards 
Compliance Manual/Forms 
California State Lands Commission
Marine Oil Terminals(562) 499-6317
California State Library
Resources and Information(916) 654-0261
Government Publication Section(916) 654-0069
Corrections Standards Authority
Local Adult Jail Standards(916) 324-1914
Local Juvenile Facility Standards(916) 324-1914
Department of Consumer Affairs—Acupuncture Board
Office Standards(916) 445-3021
Department of Consumer Affairs—Board of Pharmacy
Pharmacy Standards(916) 574-7900
Department of Consumer Affairs—Bureau of Barbering and Cosmetology
Barber and Beauty Shop and(916) 574-7570
College Standards(800) 952-5210
Department of Consumer Affairs—Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation
Insulation Testing Standards(916) 574-2041
Department of Consumer Affairs—Structural Pest Control Board
Structural Standards(800) 737-8188
(916) 561-8708
Department of Consumer Affairs—Veterinary Medical Board
Veterinary Hospital Standards(916) 263-2610
Department of Food and Agriculture
Meat & Poultry Packing Plant Standards(916) 654-1447
Dairy Standards(916) 654-1447
Department of Public Health
Organized Camps Standards(916) 449-5661
Public Swimming Pools Standards(916) 449-5693
Asbestos Standards(510) 620-2874
Department of Housing and Community Development
Residential—Hotels, Motels, Apartments Single-Family Dwellings(916) 445-9471
Permanent Structures in Mobilehome and Special Occupancy Parks(916) 445-9471
Factory-Built Housing, Manufactured Housing and Commercial Modular(916) 445-3338
Mobilehomes—Permits & Inspections
Northern Region(916) 255-2501
Southern Region(951) 782-4420
Employee Housing Standards(916) 445-9471
Department of Water Resources
Gray Water Installations Standards(916) 651-9667
Division of the State Architect—Access Compliance
Access Compliance Standards(916) 445-8100
Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety
Public Schools Standards(916) 445-8100
Essential Services Building Standards(916) 445-8100
Community College Standards(916) 445-8100
Division of the State Architect—State Historical Building Safety Board
Alternative Building Standards(916) 445-8100
Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development
Hospital Standards(916) 440-8409
Skilled Nursing Facility Standards(916) 440-8409
Clinic Standards(916) 440-8409
Permits(916) 440-8409
Office of the State Fire Marshal
Code Development and Analysis(916) 445-8200
Fire Safety Standards(916) 445-8200
Fireplace Standards(916) 445-8200
Day-Care Centers Standards(916) 445-8200
Exit Standards(916) 445-8200
iv

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

To distinguish between model code language and the incorporated California amendments, including exclusive California standards, California amendments will appear in italics.

[BSC] This symbol within a section identifies which State agency(s), by its “acronym,” has amended a section of the model code.

Legend of Acronyms of Adopting State Agencies
BSCCalifornia Building Standards Commission
SFMOffice of the State Fire Marshal
HCDDepartment of Housing and Community Development
DSA-ACDivision of the State Architect-Access Compliance
DSA-SSDivision of the State Architect-Structural Safety
DSA-SS/CCDivision of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges
OSHPDOffice of Statewide Health Planning and Development
CSACorrections Standards Authority
DPHDepartment of Public Health
AGRDepartment of Food and Agriculture
CECCalifornia Energy Commission
CADepartment of Consumer Affairs:
Board of Barbering and Cosmetology
Board of Examiners in Veterinary Medicine
Board of Pharmacy
Acupuncture Board
Bureau of Home Furnishings
Structural Pest Control Board
SLState Librarian
SLCState Lands Commission
DWRDepartment of Water Resources

Symbols in the margins indicate the status of code changes as follows:

This symbol indicates that a change has been made to a California amendment.

This symbol indicates California deletion of California language.

v vi

California Matrix Adoption Tables

Format of the California Matrix Adoption Tables

The matrix adoption tables, which follow, show the user which state agencies have adopted and/or amended given sections of the model code. The building application determines which state agency’s adoptions apply. See Section’s 102 through 114 for building applications and enforcement responsibilities.

Agencies are grouped together, based on either local or state enforcement responsibilities. For example, regulations from SFM are enforced both at the state and local levels; therefore, SFM is listed twice in each adoption table indicating state enforcement responsibilities and local enforcement responsibilities.

The side headings identify the scope of state agencies’ adoption as follows:

Adopt the entire IRC chapter without state amendments.

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym on this row; this means that particular state agency has adopted the entire model code chapter without any state amendments.

Example:

CHAPTER 2 – DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS SS/CC 1 2 3 4
Adopt entire chapter X                 
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     SAMPLE        
Adopt only those sections that are listed below                   
Chapter/Section                   

Adopt the entire IRC chapter as amended, state-amended sections are listed below:

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire model code chapter; with state amendments.

Each state-amended section that the agency has added to that particular chapter is listed. There will be an “X” by that particular section, under the agency’s acronym, as well as an “X” by each section that the agency has adopted.

Example:

CHAPTER 2 – DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS SS/CC 1 2 3 4
Adopt entire chapter                   
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) X                 
Adopt only those sections that are listed below      SAMPLE       
Chapter/Section                   
202 X                 
vii

Adopts only those sections that are listed below:

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency is adopting only specific model code or state-amended sections within this chapter. There will be an “X” in the column under the agency’s acronym, as well as an “X” by each section that the agency has adopted.

Example:

CHAPTER 2 – DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS SS/CC 1 2 3 4
Adopt entire chapter                   
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)                   
Adopt only those sections that are listed below   XX SAMPLE       
Chapter 1                   
202   XX SAMPLE       
202   XX  CONT.        
203   XX              
203   XX              

[BSC] This symbol within a section identifies which State agency(s), by its “acronym”, has amended a section of the model code.

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part I—Administrative3
CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION3
DIVISION I—CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION3
Section
1.1General3
1.2Reserved6
1.3Reserved6
1.4Reserved6
1.5Reserved6
1.6Reserved6
1.7Reserved6
1.8Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD)6
1.8.1Authority and Abbreviations6
1.8.2Local Enforcing Agency7
1.8.3Permits, Fees, Applications and Inspections8
1.8.4Right of Entry for Enforcement8
1.8.5Local Modification by Ordinance or Regulation9
1.8.6Alternate Materials, Designs, Tests and Methods of Construction9
1.8.7Appeals Board10
1.8.8Unsafe Buildings or Structures10
1.8.9Other Building Regulations11
1.9Reserved11
1.10Reserved11
1.11Office of the State Fire Marshal11
1.12Reserved15
1.13Reserved15
1.14Reserved15
DIVISION II ADMINISTRATION16
Section
R101General16
R102Applicability16
R103Department of Building Safety16
R104Duties and Powers of the Building Official17
R105Permits18
R106Construction Documents19
R107Temporary Structures and Uses20
R108Fees21
R109Inspection21
R110Certificate of Occupancy22
R111Service Utilities22
R112Board of Appeals23
R113Violations23
R114Stop Work Order24
Part II—Definitions29
CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS29
Section
R201General29
R202Definitions29
Part III— Building Planning and Construction41
CHAPTER 3 BUILDING PLANNING41
Section
R301Design Criteria41
R302Fire-Resistant Construction68
R303Light, Ventilation and Heating73
R304Minimum Room Areas74
R305Ceiling Height75
R306Sanitation75
R307Toilet, Bath and Shower Spaces75
R308Glazing75
R309Garages and Carports78
R310Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings78
R311Means of Egress79
R312Guards82
R313Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems82
R314Smoke Alarms94
R315Carbon Monoxide Alarms96
R316Foam Plastic97
R317Protection of Wood and Wood Based Products Against Decay99
R318Protection Against Subterranean Termites100
R319Site Address101
R320Accessibility101
R321Elevators and Platform Lifts101
R322Flood-Resistant Construction101
R323Storm Shelters104
R324Reserved104
R325Special Provisions for Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in Group R-3.1104
R326Large Family Day-Care Homes107
R327Materials and Construction Methods for Exterior Wildfire Exposure108
R327.1Scope, Purpose and Application108
R327.2Definitions110
R327.3Standards of Quality110
R327.4Ignition Resistant Construction111
R327.5Roofing112
R327.6Vents112
R327.7Exterior Covering112
R327.8Exterior Windows and Doors114
R327.9Decking115
R327.10Accessory Structures115
R328Electric Vehicle115
CHAPTER 4 FOUNDATIONS119
Section
R401General119
R402Materials120
R403Footings121
R404Foundation and Retaining Walls127
R405Foundation Drainage156
R406Foundation Waterproofing and Dampproofing157
R407Columns158
R408Under-Floor Space158
CHAPTER 5 FLOORS163
Section
R501General163
R502Wood Floor Framing163
R503Floor Sheathing174
R504Pressure Preservatively Treated-Wood Floors (On Ground)176
R505Steel Floor Framing176
R506Concrete Floors (On Ground)196
CHAPTER 6 WALL CONSTRUCTION199
Section
R601General199
R602Wood Wall Framing199
R603Steel Wall Framing241
R604Wood Structural Panels315
R605Particleboard315
R606General Masonry Construction315
R607Unit Masonry323
R608Multiple Wythe Masonry324
R609Grouted Masonry325
R610Glass Unit Masonry327
R611Exterior Concrete Wall Construction328
R612Exterior Windows and Doors399
R613Structural Insulated Panel Wall Construction402
CHAPTER 7 WALL COVERING413
Section
R701General413
R702Interior Covering413
R703Exterior Covering416
CHAPTER 8 ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION431
Section
R801General431
R802Wood Roof Framing431
R803Roof Sheathing457
R804Steel Roof Framing457
R805Ceiling Finishes479
R806Roof Ventilation479
R807Attic Access489
CHAPTER 9 ROOF ASSEMBLIES493
Section
R901General493
R902Roof Classification493
R903Weather Protection493
R904Materials495
R905Requirements for Roof Coverings495
R906Roof Insulation503
R907Reroofing504
CHAPTER 10 CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES507
Section
R1001Masonry Fireplaces507
R1002Masonry Heaters511
R1003Masonry Chimneys511
R1004Factory-Built Fireplaces516
R1005Factory-Built Chimneys516
R1006Exterior Air Supply516
Part IV—Energy Conservation517
Part V—Mechanical519
Part VI—Fuel Gas521
Part VII—Plumbing523
Part VIII—Electrical525
Part IX—Referenced Standards529
CHAPTER 44 REFERENCED STANDARDS529
APPENDIX A SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING555
APPENDIX B SIZING OF VENTING SYSTEMS SERVING APPLIANCES EQUIPPED WITH DRAFT HOODS, CATECORY I APPLIANCES, AND APPLIANCES LISTED FOR USE WITH TYPE B VENTS569
APPENDIX C EXIT TERMINALS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT AND DIRECT-VENT VENTING SYSTEMS581
APPENDIX D RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR SAFETY INSPECTION OF AN EXISTING APPLIANCE INSTALLATION585
APPENDIX E MANUFACTURED HOUSING USED AS DWELLINGS589
Section
AE101Scope589
AE102Application to Existing Manufactured Homes and Building Service Equipment589
AE201Definitions590
AE301Permits590
AE302Application for Permit590
AE303Permits Issuance.591
AE304Fees591
AE305Inspections592
AE306Special Inspections593
AE307Utility Service593
AE401Occupancy Classification593
AE402Location on Property596
AE501Design593
AE502Foundation Systems594
AE503Skirting and Perimeter Enclosures594
AE504Structural Additions594
AE505Building Service Equipment594
AE506Exits595
AE507Occupancy, Fire Safety and Energy Conservation Standards595
AE600Special Requirements for Foundation Systems595
AE601Footings and Foundations595
AE602Pier Construction595
AE603Height of Piers595
AE604Anchorage Installations595
AE605Ties, Materials and Installation596
AE606Referenced Standards596
APPENDIX F RADON CONTROL METHODS599
Section
AF101Scope599
AF102Definitions599
AF103Requirements599
APPENDIX G SWIMMING POOLS, SPAS AND HOT TUBS609
Section
AG101General609
AG102Definitions609
AG103Swimming Pools609
AG104Spas and Hot Tubs609
AG105Barrier Requirements609
AG106Entrapment Protection for Swimming Pool and Spa Suction Outlets611
AG107Abbreviations611
AG108Standards611
APPENDIX H PATIO COVERS615
Section
AH101General615
AH102Definition615
AH103Permitted Uses615
AH104Design Loads615
AH105Light and Ventilation/Emergency Egress615
AH106Footings615
AH107Special Provisions for Aluminum Screen Enclosures in Hurricane-Prone Regions615
APPENDIX I PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL619
Section
A1101General619
APPENDIX J EXISTING BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES623
Section
AJ101Purpose and Intent623
AJ102Compliance623
AJ103Preliminary Meeting623
AJ104Evaluation of an Existing Building623
AJ105Permit624
AJ201Definitions624
AJ301Repairs624
AJ401Renovations625
AJ501Alterations625
AJ601Reconstruction626
APPENDIX K SOUND TRANSMISSION629
Section
AK101General629
AK102Air-Borne Sound629
AK103Structural-Borne Sound629
AK104Referenced Standards629
APPENDIX L PERMIT FEES633
APPENDIX M HOME DAY CARE—R-3 OCCUPANCY637
APPENDIX N VENTING METHODS641
APPENDIX O GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS651
AO101General651
AO102Systems for Flushing Water Closets and Urinals651
AO103Subsurface Landscape Irrigation Systems653
APPENDIX P SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM659
AP101General659
AP102Information Required659
AP103Selection of Pipe Size659
AP201Selection of Pipe Size676
APPENDIX Q ICC INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE ELECTRICAL PROVISIONS/NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE CROSS-REFERENCE681
APPENDIX R AREAS PROTECTED BY THE FACILITIES OF THE CENTRAL VALLEY FLOOD PROTECTION PLAN697
HISTORY NOTE703
INDEX705
CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL CODE–MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 1–SCOPE AND APPLICATION
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1–AC AC SS 1 2 3 4
The state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol: †
Adopt entire chapter                                      
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)                                      
Adopt only those sections that are listed below   X X X                              
Chapter/Section                                      
Division 1                                      
1.1 through 1.1.12   X X X                              
1.8 though 1.8.9.2     X X                              
1.11 though 1.11.10   X                                  
Division II                                      
R104.2–R104.4   X                                  
R104.9–R109.1   X                                  
R105.1   X                                  
R105.2 Building: Items 1–10     X X                              
Electrical:                                  
Gas:                                  
Mechanical:                                  
R105.2.1–R105.2.2   X                                  
R105.3–R105.3.1   X                                  
R105.4   X                                  
R105.6   X                                  
R105.7   X                                  
R106–R106.5   X                                  
R107–R107.4   X                                  
R109.1   X X X                              
R109.1.1     X X                              
R109.1.1.1     X X                              
R109.1.2                                  
R109.1.3     X X                              
R109.1.4   X X X                              
R109.1.4.1     X X                              
R109.1.5   X X X                              
R109.1.5.1   X X X                              
R109.1.5.2     X X                              
R109.1.6   X X X                              
R109.2–R109.4   X                                  
R110.1–R110.5   X                                  
R111.1–R111.3   X                                  
R113.1–R113.2   X                                  
R114.1–R114.2   X                                  
1 2

PART 1—ADMINISTRATIVE

CHAPTER 1
SCOPE AND APPLICATION

DIVISION I
CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION

SECTION 1.1
GENERAL

1.1.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the California Residential Code, may be cited as such and will be referred to herein as “this code.” The California Residential Code is Part 2.5 of twelve parts of the official compilation and publication of the adoption, amendment and repeal of building regulations to the California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code. This part incorporates by adoption the 2009 International Residential Code of the International Code Council with necessary California amendments.

1.1.2 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, access to persons with disabilities, sanitation, adequate lighting and ventilation, and energy conservation; safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment; and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

1.1.3 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of every detached one-and two-family dwelling, townhouse not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and structures accessory thereto throughout the State of California.

Exception: Live/work units complying with the requirements of Section 419 of the California Building Code shall be permitted to be built as one- and two-family dwellings or townhouses. Fire suppression required by Section 419.5 of the California Building Code when constructed under the California Residential Code for one- and two-family dwellings shall conform to Section 903.3.1.3 of the California Building Code.

1.1.3.1 Classification. Structures or portions of structures shall be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Structures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Section 508 of the California Building Code. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved in accordance with this code or the California Building Code.

1.1.3.1.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I. Residential occupancies shall include the following:

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 or I, including:

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units.

Townhouses not more than three stories above grade in height with a separate means of egress.

Adult facilities that provide accommodations for six or fewer persons of any age for less than 24-hours. Licensing categories that may use this classification include, but are not limited to: Adult Day Programs.

Child care facilities that provide accommodations for six or fewer persons of any age for less than 24-hours. Licensing categories that may use this classification include, but are not limited to: Day-care Center for Mildly III Children, Infant Care Center and School Age Child Day-care Center.

Family Day-care Homes that provide accommodations for 14 or fewer children, in the provider's own home for less than 24-hours.

Congregate living facilities or congregate residences with 16 or fewer persons.

R-3.1 This occupancy group may include facilities licensed by a governmental agency for a residentially based 24-hour care facility providing accommodations for six or fewer clients of any age. Clients may be classified as ambulatory, nonambulatory or bedridden. A Group R-3.1 occupancy shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in Section R325 Special Provisions For Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group R-3.1 Occupancy. This group may include:

Adult Residential Facilities

Congregate Living Health Facilities

Foster Family Homes

Group Homes

Intermediate Care Facilities for the developmentally disabled habilitative

3

Intermediate Care Facilities for the Developmentally disabled nursing

Nurseries for the full-time care of children under the age of six, but not including “infants” as defined in Section 202

Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly Small Family Homes and Residential Care Facilities for the chronically ill

Exception: Foster Family Homes or Group Homes licensed by the Department of Social Services which provide nonmedical board, room and care for six or fewer ambulatory children or children two years of age or younger, and which do not have any nonambulatory clients shall not be subject to regulations found in Section R325.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143 with respect to these exempted facilities, no city, county or public district shall adopt or enforce any requirement for the prevention of fire or for the protection of life and property against fire and panic unless the requirement would be applicable to a structure regardless of the special occupancy. Nothing shall restrict the application of state or local housing standards to such facilities if the standards are applicable to residential occupancies and are not based on the use of the structure as a facility for ambulatory children. For the purpose of this exception, ambulatory children does not include relatives of the licensee or the licensee's spouse.

Large Family Day-Care Homes. See Section R326.

1.1.3.1.2 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Agricultural buildings

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (See Section 412.5 of the California Building Code)

Barns

Carports

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy

Greenhouses

Livestock shelters

Private garages

Retaining walls

Sheds

Stables

Tanks

Towers

1.1.3.2 Regulated buildings, structures and applications. The model code, state amendments to the model code, and/or state amendments where there are no relevant model code provisions shall apply to detached one- and two-family dwellings, townhouses and structures accessory thereto. State agencies with regulatory authority are referenced in the Matrix Adoption Table and as specified in Sections 1.2 through 1.14, except where modified by local ordinance pursuant to Section 1.1.8. When adopted by a state agency, the provisions of this code shall be enforced by the appropriate enforcing agency, but only to the extent of authority granted to such agency by the state legislature.

Note: See Preface to distinguish the model code provisions from the California provisions.

  1. One- and two-family dwellings, townhouses, employee housing, factory-built housing and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with common toilets or cooking facilities. See Section 1.2.1.1.1.
  2. Permanent buildings and permanent accessory buildings or structures constructed within mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. See Section 1.2.1.1.3.
  3. Applications regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal include, but are not limited to, the following in accordance with Section 1.11:
    1. Buildings or structures used or intended for use as a/an:
      1. Home for the elderly, children's nursery, children's home or institution, school or any similar occupancy of any capacity
      2. Small family day-care homes, large family day-care homes, residential facilities and residential facilities for the elderly, residential care facilities
      3. State institutions or other state-owned or state-occupied buildings
      4. Residential structures
      5. Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection with any occupancy
      6. Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection with any occupancy
      7. Wildland-urban interface fire areas

1.1.4 Appendices. Provisions contained in the appendices of this code shall not apply unless specifically adopted by a state agency or adopted by a local enforcing agency in compliance with Health and Safety Code Section 18901 et seq. for Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17950 for State Housing Law and Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7 for Fire Protection Districts. See Section 1.1.8 of this code.

1.1.5 Referenced codes. The codes, standards and publications adopted and set forth in this code, including other codes, standards and publications referred to therein are, by title and date of publication, hereby adopted as standard reference documents of this code. When this code does not specifically cover any subject related to building design and construction, recognized

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architectural or engineering practices shall be employed. The National Fire Codes, standards and the Fire Protection Handbook of the National Fire Protection Association are permitted to be used as authoritative guides in determining recognized fire prevention engineering practices.

1.1.6 Nonbuilding standards, orders and regulations. Requirements contained in the International Residential Code, or in any other referenced standard, code or document, which are not building standards as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18909, shall not be constructed as part of the provisions of this code. For nonbuilding standards, orders and regulations, see other titles of the California Code of Regulations.

1.1.7 Order of precedence and use.

1.1.7.1 Differences. In the event of any differences between these building standards and the standard reference documents, the text of these building standards shall govern.

1.1.7.2 Specific provisions. Where a specific provision varies from a general provision, the specific provision shall apply.

1.1.7.3 Conflicts. When the requirements of this code conflict with the requirements of any other part of the California Building Standards Code, Title 24, the most restrictive requirements shall prevail.

1.1.7.3.1 Detached one- and two-family dwellings.Detached one–and two-family dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories above grade plane with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall not be required to comply with the more restrictive requirements contained in Title 24, Part 2, the California Building Code, unless the proposed structure(s) exceed the design limitations established in the California Residential Code user is specifically directed to use the California Building Code.

1.1.8 City, county, or city and county amendments, additions or deletions. The provisions of this code do not limit the authority of city, county, or city and country governments to establish more restrictive and reasonably necessary differences to the provisions contained in this code pursuant to complying with Section 1.1.8.1. The effective date of amendments, additions or deletions to this code by city, county, or city and county filed pursuant to Section 1.1.8.1 shall be the date filed. However, in no case shall the amendments, additions or deletions to this code be effective any sooner than the effective date of this code.

Local modifications shall comply with Health and Safety Code Section 18941.5 for Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17958 for State Housing Law or Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7 for Fire Protection Districts.

1.1.8.1 Findings and filings.

  1. The city, county, or city and county shall make express findings for each amendment, addition or deletion based upon climatic, topographical or geological conditions.

    Exception: Hazardous building ordinances and programs mitigating unreinforced masonry buildings.

  2. The city, county, or city and county shall file the amendments, additions or deletions expressly marked and identified as to the applicable findings. Cities, counties, cities and counties, and fire departments shall file the amendments, additions or deletions, and the findings with the California Building Standards Commission at 2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130, Sacramento, CA 95833.
  3. Findings prepared by fire protection districts shall be ratified by the local city, county, or city and county and filed with the California Department of Housing and Community Development, Division of Codes and Standards, P.O. Box 1407, Sacramento, CA 95812-1407 or 1800 3rd Street, Room 260, Sacramento, CA 95811.

1.1.9 Effective date of this code. Only those standards approved by the California Building Standards Commission that are effective at the time an application for building permit is submitted shall apply to the plans and specifications for, and to the construction performed under, that permit. For the effective dates of the provisions contained in this code, see the History Note page of this code.

1.1.10 Availability of codes. At least one complete copy each of Titles 8, 19, 20, 24 and 25 with all revisions shall be maintained in the office of the building official responsible for the administration and enforcement of this code. Each state department concerned and each city, county, or city and county shall have an up-to-date copy of the code available for public inspection. See Health and Safety Code Section 18942(d) (1) and (2).

1.1.11 Format. This part fundamentally adopts the International Residential Code by reference on a chapter-by-chapter basis. Such adoption is reflected in the Matrix Adoption Table of each chapter of this part. When the Matrix Adoption Table makes no reference to a specific chapter of the International Residential Code, such chapter of the International Residential Code is not adopted as a portion of this code.

1.1.12 Validity. If any chapter, section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be unconstitutional, contrary to statute, exceeding the authority of the state as stipulated by statutes or otherwise inoperative, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portion of this code.

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SECTION 1.2
Reserved

SECTION 1.3
Reserved

SECTION 1.4
Reserved

SECTION 1.5
Reserved

SECTION 1.6
Reserved

SECTION 1.7
Reserved

SECTION 1.8
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (HCD)

SECTION 1.8.1
AUTHORITY AND ABBREVIATIONS

1.8.1.1 General. The Department of Housing and Community Development is authorized by law to promulgate and adopt building standards and regulations for several types of building applications. These applications are grouped and identified by abbreviation in the Matrix Adoption Table to show which model code sections and amendments are applicable to each application. The applications under the authority of the Department of Housing and Community Development are listed in Sections 1.8.1.1.1 through 1.8.1.1.3.

1.8.1.1.1 Housing construction. Application –Hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, employee housing, factory-built housing and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilet or cooking facilities including accessory buildings, facilities and uses thereto. Sections of this code which pertain to applications listed in this section are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation "HCD 1."

Enforcing agency—Local building department or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

1.8.1.1.2 Housing accessibility. Application–Covered multifamily dwellings as defined in Chapter 11A of the California Building Code (CBC) including, but not limited to, lodging houses, dormitories, timeshares, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, apartment houses, dwellings, employee housing, factory-built housing and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilet or cooking facilities.

Disabled access regulations promulgated under HCD authority are located in Chapter 11A of the California Building Code (CBC) and are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table by the abbreviation “HCD 1-AC.”Application of such provisions shall be in conjunction with other requirements of the Building Standards Code and apply only to newly constructed “Covered multifamily dwellings” as defined in CBC Chapter 11A.“HCD 1-AC ”applications include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. All newly constructed “Covered multifamily dwellings“ as defined in CBC Chapter 11A.
  2. New “Common use areas“ as defined in CBC Chapter 11A serving existing covered multifamily dwellings.
  3. Additions to existing buildings, where the addition alone meets the definition of “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS” as defined in CBC Chapter 11A.
  4. Common use areas serving covered multifamily dwellings.
  5. Where any portion of a building's exterior is preserved, but the interior of the building is removed, including all structural portions of floors and ceilings, the building is considered a new building for the purpose of determining the application of CBC Chapter 11A.

"HCD 1-AC" building standards generally do not apply to public use areas or public accommodations such as hotels and motels or public housing. Public use areas, public accommodations, public housing and housing which is publicly funded as defined in the CBC are subject to the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) and are referenced in CBC Section 1.9.1.

Enforcing agency—Local building department or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928,

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17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

1.8.1.1.3 Permanent buildings in mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks. Application–Permanent buildings, and permanent accessory buildings or structures, constructed within mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks that are under the control and ownership of the park operator. Sections of this code which pertain to applications listed in this section are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation “HCD 2.”

Enforcing agency—Local building department or other local agency responsible for the enforcement of Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 for mobilehome parks and Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 for special occupancy parks; or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

SECTION 1.8.2
LOCAL ENFORCING AGENCY

1.8.2.1 Duties and powers. The building department of every city, county, or city and county shall enforce all the provisions of law, this code, and the other rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development pertaining to the installation, erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of apartment houses, hotels, motels, lodging houses and dwellings, including accessory buildings, facilities and uses thereto.

The provisions regulating the erection and construction of dwellings and appurtenant structures shall not apply to existing structures as to which construction is commenced or approved prior to the effective date of these regulations. Requirements relating to use, maintenance and occupancy shall apply to all dwellings and appurtenant structures approved for construction or constructed before or after the effective date of this code.

For additional information regarding the use and occupancy of existing buildings and appurtenant structures, see California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Article 1, Section 1.

1.8.2.2 Laws, rules and regulations. Other than the building standards contained in this code, and notwithstanding other provisions of law, the statutory authority and location of the laws, rules and regulations to be enforced by local enforcing agencies are listed by statute in Sections 1.8.2.2.1 through 1.8.2.2.5 below:

1.8.2.2.1 State Housing Law. Refer to the State Housing Law, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1, for the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of apartment houses, hotels, motels, lodging houses and dwellings, including accessory buildings, facilities and uses thereto.

1.8.2.2.2 Mobilehome Parks Act. Refer to the Mobilehome Parks Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000 for mobilehome park administrative and enforcement authority, permits, plans, fees, violations, inspections and penalties both within and outside mobilehome parks.

Exception: Mobilehome parks where the Department of Housing and Community Development is the enforcing agency.

1.8.2.2.3 Special Occupancy Parks Act. Refer to the Special Occupancy Parks Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000 for special occupancy park administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections and penalties both within and outside of special occupancy parks.

Exception: Special occupancy parks where the Department of Housing and Community Development is the enforcing agency.

1.8.2.2.4 Employee Housing Act. Refer to the Employee Housing Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600 for employee housing administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections and penalties.

1.8.2.2.5 Factory-Built Housing Law. Refer to the Factory-Built Housing Law, California Health and Safety

7

Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000 for factory-built housing administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections and penalties.

SECTION 1.8.3
PERMITS, FEES, APPLICATIONS AND INSPECTIONS

1.8.3.1 Permits. A written construction permit shall be obtained from the enforcing agency prior to the erection, construction, reconstruction, installation, moving or alteration of any building or structure.

Exceptions:

  1. Work exempt from permits as specified in Chapter 1, Administration, Division II, Section R105.2.
  2. Changes, alterations or repairs of a minor nature not affecting structural features, egress, sanitation, safety or accessibility as determined by the enforcing agency.

Exemptions from permit requirements shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of other provisions of law or this code.

1.8.3.2 Fees. Subject to other provisions of law, the governing body of any city, county, or city and county may prescribe fees to defray the cost of enforcement of rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. The amount of the fees shall not exceed the amount reasonably necessary to administer or process permits, certificates, forms or other documents, or to defray the costs of enforcement. For additional information, see State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, Section 17951 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, Article 3, commencing with Section 6.

1.8.3.3 Plan review and time limitations. Subject to other provisions of law, provisions related to plan checking, prohibition of excessive delays and contracting with or employment of private parties to perform plan checking are set forth in State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17960.1, and for employee housing, in Health and Safety Code Section 17021.

1.8.3.3.1 Retention of plans. The building department of every city, county, or city and county shall maintain an official copy, microfilm, electronic or other type of photographic copy of the plans of every building, during the life of the building, for which the department issued a building permit.

Exceptions:

  1. Single or multiple dwellings not more than two stories and basement in height.
  2. Garages and other structures appurtenant to buildings listed in Exception 1.
  3. Farm or ranch buildings appurtenant to buildings listed in Exception 1.
  4. Any one-story building where the span between bearing walls does not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm), except a steel frame or concrete building.

All plans for common interest developments as defined in Section 1351 of the California Civil Code shall be retained. For additional information regarding plan retention and reproduction of plans by an enforcing agency, see Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 through 19852.

1.8.3.4 Inspections. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official, and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or other regulations of the Department of Housing and Community Development. Required inspections are listed in the Matrix Adoption Table and in Chapter 1, Administration, Division II. See Section R109.1.

SECTION 1.8.4
RIGHT OF ENTRY FOR ENFORCEMENT

1.8.4.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, officers and agents of the enforcing agency may enter and inspect public and private properties to secure compliance with the rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. For limitations and additional information regarding enforcement, see the following:

  1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.3 of this Code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600. 8
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Sections 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

SECTION 1.8.5
LOCAL MODIFICATION BY ORDINANCE OR REGULATION

1.8.5.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, a city, county, or city and county may make changes to the provisions adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development. If any city, county, or city and county does not amend, add or repeal by local ordinances or regulations the provisions published in this code or other regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development, those provisions shall be applicable and shall become effective 180 days after publication by the California Building Standards Commission. Amendments, additions and deletions to this code adopted by a city, county, or city and county pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Sections 17958.5, 17958.7 and 18941.5, together with all applicable portions of this code, shall also become effective 180 days after publication of the California Building Standards Code by the California Building Standards Commission.

1.8.5.2 Findings, filings and rejections of local modifications. Prior to making any modifications or establishing more restrictive building standards, the governing body shall make express findings and filings, as required by California Health and Safety Code Section 17958.7, showing that such modifications are reasonably necessary due to local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. No modification shall become effective or operative unless the following requirements are met:

  1. The express findings shall be made available as a public record.
  2. A copy of the modification and express finding, each document marked to cross-reference the other, shall be filed with the California Building Standards Commission for a city, county, or city and county and with the Department of Housing and Community Development for fire protection districts.
  3. The California Building Standards Commission has not rejected the modification or change.

Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of fire protection districts pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7(a).

SECTION 1.8.6
ALTERNATE MATERIALS, DESIGNS, TESTS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

1.8.6.1 General. The provisions of this code as adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development are not intended to prevent the use of any alternate material, appliance, installation, device, arrangement, design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code. Consideration and approval of alternates shall comply with Section 1.8.6.2 for local building departments and Section 1.8.6.3 for the Department of Housing and Community Development.

1.8.6.2 Local building departments. The building department of any city, county, or city and county may approve alternates for use in the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of an apartment house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling or an accessory structure, except for the following:

  1. Structures located in mobilehome parks as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 18214.
  2. Structures located in special occupancy parks as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 18862.43.
  3. Factory-built housing as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 19971.

1.8.6.2.1 Approval of alternates. The consideration and approval of alternates by a local building department shall comply with the following procedures and limitations:

  1. The approval shall be granted on a case-by-case basis.
  2. Evidence shall be submitted to substantiate claims that the proposed alternate, in performance, safety and protection of life and health, conforms to, or is at least equivalent to, the standards contained in this code and other rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development.
  3. The local building department may require tests performed by an approved testing agency at the expense of the owner or owner's agent as proof of compliance.
  4. If the proposed alternate is related to accessibility in covered multifamily dwellings or in facilities serving “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS” as defined in CBC Chapter 11A, the proposed alternate must also meet the threshold set for “EQUIVALENT FACILITATION” as defined in CBC Chapter 11A.

For additional information regarding approval of alternates by a building department pursuant to the State Housing Law, see California Health and Safety Code Section 17951(e) and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1.

1.8.6.3 Department of Housing and Community Development. The Department of Housing and Community Development may approve alternates for use in the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal or demolition of an

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apartment house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling or an accessory thereto. The consideration and approval of alternates shall comply with the following:

  1. The department may require tests at the expense of the owner or owner’s agent to substantiate compliance with the California Building Standards Code.
  2. The approved alternate shall, for its intended purpose, be at least equivalent in performance and safety to the materials, designs, tests or methods of construction prescribed by this code.

SECTION 1.8.7
APPEALS BOARD

1.8.7.1 General. Every city, county, or city and county shall establish a local appeals board and a housing appeals board. The local appeals board and housing appeals board shall each be comprised of at least five voting members that shall serve at the pleasure of the city, county, or city and county. Appointees shall not be employees of the jurisdiction and shall be qualified and specifically knowledgeable in the California Building Standards Codes and applicable local ordinances.

1.8.7.2 Definitions. The following terms shall for the purposes of this section have the meaning shown.

HOUSING APPEALS BOARD.The board or agency of a city, county, or city and county which is authorized by the governing body of the city, county, or city and county to hear appeals regarding the requirements of the city, county or city and county relating to the use, maintenance and change of occupancy of buildings and structures, including requirements governing alteration, additions, repair, demolition and moving. In any area in which there is no such board or agency, “Housing Appeals Board” means the local appeals board having jurisdiction over the area.

LOCAL APPEALS BOARD. The board or agency of a city, county, or city and county which is authorized by the governing body of the city, county, or city and county to hear appeals regarding the building requirements of the city, county, or city and county. In any area in which there is no such board or agency, “ Local Appeals Board” means the governing body of the city, county, or city and county having jurisdiction over the area.

1.8.7.3 Appeals. Except as otherwise provided in law, any person, firm or corporation adversely affected by a decision, order or determination by a city, county, or city and county relating to the application of building standards published in the California Building Standards Code, or any other applicable rule or regulation adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development, or any lawfully enacted ordinance by a city, county, or city and county, may appeal the issue for resolution to the local appeals board or housing appeals board as appropriate.

The local appeals board shall hear appeals relating to new building construction, and the housing appeals board shall hear appeals relating to existing buildings.

SECTION 1.8.8
UNSAFE BUILDINGS OR STRUCTURES

1.8.8.1 Authority to enforce. Subject to other provisions of law, the administration, enforcement, actions, proceedings, abatement, violations and penalties for unsafe buildings and structures are contained in the following statutes and regulations:

  1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.3 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

1.8.8.2 Actions and proceedings. Subject to other provisions of law, punishments, penalties and fines for violations of building standards are contained in the following statutes and regulations:

  1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.3 of this code, refer to the Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and 10 California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

SECTION 1.8.9
OTHER BUILDING REGULATIONS

1.8.9.1 Existing structures. Subject to the requirements of California Health and Safety Code Sections 17912, 17920.3, 17922, 17922.3, 17958.8 and 17958.9, provisions relating to existing structures (additions, alterations and repairs) shall only apply as identified in the California Building Code Chapter 34 Matrix Adoption Table under the authority of the Department of Housing and Community Development as listed in Sections 1.8.1.1.1 through 1.8.1.1.3 of this code.

1.8.9.2 Moved structures. Subject to the requirements of California Health and Safety Code Sections 17922.3 and 17958.9, provisions relating to a moved residential structure are located in CBC Chapter 34 and shall only apply as identified in the CBC Chapter 34 Matrix Adoption Table under the authority of the Department of Housing and Community Development as listed in Sections 1.8.1.1.1 through 1.8.1.1.3 of this code.

SECTION 1.9
Reserved

SECTION 1.9
Reserved

SECTION 1.11
OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL

1.11.1 SFM—Office of the State Fire Marshal. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application:

Institutional, educational or any similar occupancy. Any building or structure used or intended for use as an asylum, jail, mental hospital, hospital, sanitarium, home for the aged, children’s nursery, children’s home, school or any similar occupancy of any capacity.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Assembly or similar place of assemblage. Any theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building or similar place of assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a building, room or structure for the purpose of amusement, entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or dining, awaiting transportation, or education.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Small family day-care homes.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.45, 1597.54, 13143 and 17921.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Large family day-care homes.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.45, 1597.54, 13143 and 17921.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential facilities and residential facilities for the elderly.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13133.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Any state institution or other state-owned or state-occupied building.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13108.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

High-rise structures.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13211.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Motion picture production studios.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.1.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Organized camps.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 18897.3.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential. All hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses and dwellings, including congregate residences and buildings and structures accessory thereto. Multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for human habitation, including and limited to, hotels, motels and apartment houses, less than 75 feet (22 860

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mm) above the lowest floor level having building access, wherein rooms used for sleeping are let above the ground floor.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.2 and 17921.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential care facilities. Certified family care homes, out-of-home placement facilities, halfway houses, drug and/or alcohol rehabilitation facilities and any building or structure used or intended for use as a home or institution for the housing of any person of any age when such person is referred to or placed within such home or institution for protective social care and supervision services by any governmental agency.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection with any occupancy.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13116.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection with any occupancy.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13114.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Hazardous materials.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.9

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Flammable and combustible liquids.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Public school automatic fire detection, alarm and sprinkler systems.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education Code Article 7.5, Sections 17074.50, 17074.52 and 17074.54.

Reference— Government Code Section 11152.5, Health and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education Code Chapter 12.5, Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998, Article 1.

Wildland-Urban interface fire area.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, 13108.5(a) and 18949.2(b) and (c) and Government Code Section 51189.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, Government Code Sections 51176, 51177, 51178 and 51179 and Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204.

1.11.2 Duties and powers of the enforcing agency.

1.11.2.1 Enforcement.

1.11.2.1.1 The responsibility for enforcement of building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal shall except as provided in Section 1.11.2.1.2 be as follows:

  1. The city, county, or city and county with jurisdiction in the area affected by the standard or regulation shall delegate the enforcement of the building standards relating to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal as they relate to Group R-3 occupancies, as described in Section 1.1.3.1 or CCR, Part 2 California Building Code,, Section 310.1, to either of the following:
    1. The chief of the fire authority of the city, county or city and county, or an authorized representative.
    2. The chief building official of the city, county or city and county, or an authorized representative.
  2. The chief of any city or county fire department or of any fire protection district, and authorized representatives, shall enforce within the jurisdiction the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal, except those described in Item 1 or 4.
  3. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to enforce the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal in areas outside of corporate cities and districts providing fire protection services.
  4. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to enforce the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal in corporate cities and districts providing fire protection services on request of the chief fire official or the governing body.
  5. Any fee charged pursuant to the enforcement authority of this section shall not exceed the estimated reasonable cost of providing the service for which the fee is charged pursuant to Section 66014 of the Government Code.

1.11.2.1.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, and except as otherwise provided in this section, building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety shall be enforced by the State Fire Marshal in all state-owned buildings, state-occupied buildings and state institutions throughout the state. Upon the written request of the chief fire official of any city, county, or fire protection district, the State Fire Marshal may authorize such chief fire official

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and his or her authorized representatives, in their geographical area of responsibility, to make fire prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than state institutions, for the purpose of enforcing the regulations relating to fire and panic safety adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to this section and building standards relating to fire and panic safety published in the California Building Standards Code. Authorization from the State Fire Marshal shall be limited to those fire departments or fire districts which maintain a fire prevention bureau staffed by paid personnel.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, any requirement or order made by any chief fire official who is authorized by the State Fire Marshal to make fire prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than state institutions, may be appealed to the State Fire Marshal. The State Fire Marshal shall, upon receiving an appeal and subject to the provisions of Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 18945) of Part 2.5 of Division 13 of the Health and Safety Code, determine if the requirement or order made is reasonably consistent with the fire and panic safety regulations adopted by the State Fire Marshal and building standards relating to fire and panic safety published in the California Building Code.

Any person may request a code interpretation from the State Fire Marshal relative to the intent of any regulation or provision adopted by the State Fire Marshal. When the request relates to a specific project, occupancy or building, the State Fire Marshal shall review the issue with the appropriate local enforcing agency prior to rendering such code interpretation.

1.11.2.1.3 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13112, any person who violates any order, rule or regulation of the State Fire Marshal is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100.00 or more than $500.00, or by imprisonment for not less than six months, or by both. A person is guilty of a separate offense each day during which he or she commits, continues or permits a violation of any provision of, or any order, rule or regulation of, the State Fire Marshal as contained in this code.

Any inspection authority who, in the exercise of his or her authority as a deputy State Fire Marshal, causes any legal complaints to be filed or any arrest to be made shall notify the State Fire Marshal immediately following such action.

1.11.2.2 Right of entry. The fire chief of any city, county or fire protection district, or such person’s authorized representative, may enter any state institution or any other state-owned or state-occupied building for the purpose of preparing a fire suppression preplanning program or for the purpose of investigating any fire in a state-occupied building.

The State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants, the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protection district and his or her authorized representatives may enter any building or premises not used for dwelling purposes at any reasonable hour for the purpose of enforcing this chapter. The owner, lessee, manager or operator of any such building or premises shall permit the State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants and the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protection district and his or her authorized representatives to enter and inspect them at the time and for the purpose stated in this section.

1.11.2.3 More restrictive fire and panic safety building standards.

1.11.2.3.1 Any fire protection district organized pursuant to Health and Safety Code Part 2.7 (commencing with Section 13800) of Division 12 may adopt building standards relating to fire and panic safety that are more stringent than those building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and contained in the California Building Standards Code. For these purposes, the district board shall be deemed a legislative body and the district shall be deemed a local agency. Any changes or modifications that are more stringent than the requirements published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety shall be subject to Section 1.1.8.1.

1.11.2.3.2 Any fire protection district that proposes to adopt an ordinance pursuant to this section shall, not less than 30 days prior to noticing a proposed ordinance for public hearing, provide a copy of that ordinance, together with the adopted findings made pursuant to Section 1.11.2.3.1, to the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. The city, county, or city and county may provide the district with written comments, which shall become part of the fire protection district’s public hearing record.

1.11.2.3.3 The fire protection district shall transmit the adopted ordinance to the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. The legislative body of the city, county, or city and county may ratify, modify or deny an adopted ordinance and transmit its determination to the district within 15 days of the determination. Any modification or denial of an adopted ordinance shall include a written statement describing the reasons for any modifications or denial. No ordinance adopted by the district shall be effective until ratification by the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. Upon ratification of an adopted ordinance, the city, county, or city and county shall file a copy of the findings of the district, and any findings of the city, county, or city and county, together with the adopted ordinance expressly marked and identified to which each finding refers, in accordance with Section 1.1.8.1:3.

1.11.2.4 Request for alternate means of protection. Requests for approval to use an alternative material, assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment or means of protection shall be made in writing to the enforcing agency by the owner or the owner’s authorized representative and shall be accompanied by a full statement of the conditions. Sufficient evidence or proof shall be submitted to substantiate any

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claim that may be made regarding its conformance. The enforcing agency may require tests and the submission of a test report from an approved testing organization as set forth in Title 19, California Code of Regulation, to substantiate the equivalency of the proposed alternative means of protection.

When a request for alternate means of protection involves hazardous materials, the authority having jurisdiction may consider implementation of the findings and recommendations identified in a Risk Management Plan (RMP) developed in accordance with Title 19, Division 2, Chapter 4.5, Article 3.

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, assembly of materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment or means of protection made pursuant to these provisions shall be limited to the particular case covered by request and shall not be constructed as establishing any precedent for any future request.

1.11.2.5 Appeals. When a request for an alternate means of protection has been denied by the enforcing agency, the applicant may file a written appeal to the State Fire Marshal for consideration of the applicant’s proposal. In considering such appeal, the State Fire Marshal may seek the advice of the State Board of Fire Services. The State Fire Marshal shall, after considering all of the facts presented, including any recommendations of the State Board of Fire Services, determine if the proposal is for the purposes intended, at least equivalent to that specified in these regulations in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety, and shall transmit such findings and any recommendations to the applicant and to the enforcing agency.

1.11.3 Construction documents.

1.11.3.1 Public schools. Plans and specifications for the construction, alteration or addition to any building owned, leased or rented by any public school district shall be submitted to the Division of the State Architect.

1.11.3.2 Movable walls and partitions. Plans or diagrams shall be submitted to the enforcing agency for approval before the installation of, or rearrangement of, any movable wall or partition in any occupancy. Approval shall be granted only if there is no increase in the fire hazard.

1.11.3.3 New construction high-rise buildings.

  1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared covering all work required to comply with new construction high-rise buildings. Such plans and specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.
  2. All plans and specifications shall be prepared under the responsible charge of an architect or a civil or structural engineer authorized by law to develop construction plans and specifications, or by both such architect and engineer. Plans and specifications shall be prepared by an engineer duly qualified in that branch of engineering necessary to perform such services. Administration of the work of construction shall be under the charge of the responsible architect or engineer except that where plans and specifications involve alterations or repairs, such work of construction may be administered by an engineer duly qualified to perform such services and holding a valid certificate under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 65700) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code for performance of services in that branch of engineering in which said plans, specifications and estimates and work of construction are applicable.

This section shall not be construed as preventing the design of fire-extinguishing systems by persons holding a C-16 license issued pursuant to Division 3, Chapter 9, Business and Professions Code. In such instances, however, the responsibility charge of this section shall prevail.

1.11.3.4 Existing high-rise buildings.

  1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared covering all work required by Section 3412 for existing high-rise buildings. Such plans or specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.
  2. When new construction is required to conform with the provisions of these regulations, complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. As used in this section, “new construction” is not intended to include repairs, replacements or minor alterations which do not disrupt or appreciably add to or affect the structural aspects of the building.

1.11.3.5 Retention of plans. Refer to Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 and 19851 for permanent retention of plans.

1.11.4 Fees.

1.11.4.1 Other fees. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13146.2, a city, county or district which inspects a hotel, motel, lodging house or apartment house may charge and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the structure in an amount, as determined by the city, county or district, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection.

1.11.4.2 Large family day-care. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1597.46, Large Family Day-Care Homes, the local government shall process any required permit as economically as possible, and fees charged for review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit process.

1.11.4.3 High-rise. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13217, High-rise Structure Inspection: Fees and costs, a local agency which inspects a high-rise structure pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13217 may charge and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the high-rise structure in an amount, as determined by the local agency, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection.

1.11.4.4 Fire clearance preinspection. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, Fire Clearance Preinspection, fee, upon receipt of a request from a prospective licensee of a community care facility, as defined in Section 1502, of a residential care facility for the elderly, as defined in Section 1569.2, or of a child day-care facility, as defined in Section 1596.750, the local fire enforcing agency,

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as defined in Section 13244, or State Fire Marshal, whichever has primary jurisdiction, shall conduct a preinspection of the facility prior to the final fire clearance approval. At the time of the preinspection, the primary fire enforcing agency shall price consultation and interpretation of the fire safety regulations and shall notify the prospective licensee of the facility in writing of the specific fire safety regulations which shall be enforced in order to obtain fire clearance approval. A fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection services may be charged for the preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or fewer persons. A fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection services may be charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or more persons.

1.11.4.5 Care facilities. The primary fire enforcing agency shall complete the final fire clearance inspection for a community care facility, residential care facility for the elderly, or child day-care facility within 30 days of receipt of the request for the final inspection, or as of the date the prospective facility requests the final prelicensure inspection by the State Department of Social Services, whichever is later.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, a preinspection fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection services may be charged for a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or less clients. A fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection services may be charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or more clients.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13131.5, a reasonable final inspection fee, not to exceed the actual cost of inspection services necessary to complete a final inspection may be charged for occupancies classified as residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE).

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1569.84, neither the State Fire Marshal nor any local public entity shall charge any fee for enforcing fire inspection regulations pursuant to state law or regulation or local ordinance, with respect to residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) which service six or fewer persons.

1.11.4.6 Requests of the Office of the State Fire Marshal. Whenever a local authority having jurisdiction requests that the State Fire Marshal perform plan review and/or inspection services related to a building permit, the applicable fees for such shall be payable to the Office of the State Fire Marshal.

1.11.5 Inspections. Work performed subject to the provisions of this code shall comply with the inspection requirements of Sections R109.1 through R109.1.6.

1.11.5.1 Existing Group I -1 or R occupancies. Licensed 24-hour care in a Group I-1 or R occupancy in existence and originally classified under previously adopted state codes shall be reinspected under the appropriate previous code, provided there is no change in the use or character which would place the facility in a different occupancy group.

1.11.6 Certificate of occupancy. A Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued as specified in Section R110.

1.11.7 Temporary structures and uses. See Section R107.

1.11.8 Service utilities. See Section R111.

1.11.9 Stop work order. See Section R114.

1.11.10 Unsafe buildings, structures and equipment. See Title 24, Part 2, California Building Code, Section 115.

SECTION 1.12
Reserved

SECTION 1.13
Reserved

SECTION 1.14
Reserved

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DIVISION II
ADMINISTRATION

Division II is not adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development or the State Fire Marshal except where specifically identified in the Matrix Adoption Table.

SECTION R101
GENERAL

R101.1 Title. These provisions shall be known as the Residential Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], and shall be cited as such and will be referred to herein as “this code.”

R101.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Residential Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures.

Exception: Live/work units complying with the requirements of Section 419 of the International Building Code shall be permitted to be built as one- and two-family dwellings or townhouses. Fire suppression required by Section 419.5 of the International Building Code when constructed under the International Residential Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings shall conform to Section 903.3.1.3 of the International Building Code.

R101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish minimum requirements to safeguard the public safety, health and general welfare through affordability, structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, light and ventilation, energy conservation and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

SECTION R102
APPLICABILITY

R102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

R102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law.

R102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

R102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

Exception: Where enforcement of a code provision would violate the conditions of the listing of the equipment or appliance, the conditions of the listing and manufacturer’s instructions shall apply.

R102.5 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

R102.6 Partial invalidity. In the event any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions.

R102.7 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any structure existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be permitted to continue without change, except as is specifically covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the occupants and the public.

R102.7.1 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, alterations or repairs to any structure shall conform to the requirements for a new structure without requiring the existing structure to comply with all of the requirements of this code, unless otherwise stated. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not cause an existing structure to become unsafe or adversely affect the performance of the building.

SECTION R103
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY

R103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The department of building safety is hereby created and the official in charge thereof shall be known as the building official.

R103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction.

R103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the building official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated by the building official.

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SECTION R104
DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE
BUILDING OFFICIAL

R104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building official shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall be in conformance with the intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.

R104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for the erection and alteration of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code.

R104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code.

R104.4 Inspections. The building official is authorized to make all of the required inspections, or the building official shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority.

R104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.

R104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the building official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official or designee is authorized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such structure or premises be unoccupied, the building official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry.

R104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep official records of applications received, permits and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official records for the period required for the retention of public records.

R104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code.

R104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equipment and devices approved by the building official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.

R104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. Used materials, equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved by the building official.

R104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the building official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, provided the building official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements or structural. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of building safety.

R104.10.1 Areas prone to flooding. The building official shall not grant modifications to any provision related to areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1) without the granting of a variance to such provisions by the board of appeals.

R104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code. Compliance with the specific performance-based provisions of the International Codes in lieu of specific requirements of this code shall also be permitted as an alternate.

R104.11.1 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the building official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the building official shall approve the testing procedures.

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Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building official for the period required for retention of public records.

SECTION R105
PERMITS

R105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make application to the building official and obtain the required permit.

R105.2 Work exempt from permit. Permits shall not be required for the following. Exemption from permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction.

Building:

  1. One-story detached accessory structures used as tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square feet (11.15 m2).
  2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high.
  3. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge.
  4. Water tanks supported directly upon grade if the capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 927 L) and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not exceed 2 to 1.
  5. Sidewalks and driveways.
  6. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter tops and similar finish work.
  7. Prefabricated swimming pools that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) deep.
  8. Swings and other playground equipment.
  9. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall which do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the exterior wall and do not require additional support.
  10. Decks not exceeding 200 square feet (18.58 m2) in area, that are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above grade at any point, are not attached to a dwelling and do not serve the exit door required by Section R311.4.

Electrical:

  1. Listed cord-and-plug connected temporary decorative lighting.
  2. Reinstallation of attachment plug receptacles but not the outlets therefor.
  3. Replacement of branch circuit overcurrent devices of the required capacity in the same location.
  4. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances, apparatus or equipment operating at less than 25 volts and not capable of supplying more than 50 watts of energy.
  5. Minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles.

Gas:

  1. Portable heating, cooking or clothes drying appliances.
  2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe.
  3. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected to a fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a power grid.

Mechanical:

  1. Portable heating appliances.
  2. Portable ventilation appliances.
  3. Portable cooling units.
  4. Steam, hot- or chilled-water piping within any heating or cooling equipment regulated by this code.
  5. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe.
  6. Portable evaporative coolers.
  7. Self-contained refrigeration systems containing 10 pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant or that are actuated by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less.
  8. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected to a fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a power grid.

The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe; provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drainpipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with new material, such work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in this code.

The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstallation of water closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures.

R105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replacements and repairs must be performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within the next working business day to the building official.

R105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the removal or change of any required means of egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to,

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alteration of, replacement or relocation of any water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work affecting public health or general safety.

R105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be required for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, transmission, distribution, metering or other related equipment that is under the ownership and control of public service agencies by established right.

R105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. Such application shall:

  1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.
  2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.
  3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.
  4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other information as required in Section R106.1.
  5. State the valuation of the proposed work.
  6. Be signed by the applicant or the applicant’s authorized agent.
  7. Give such other data and information as required by the building official.

R105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filling. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building official shall reject such application in writing stating the reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.

R105.3.1.1 Determination of substantially improved or substantially damaged existing buildings in flood hazard areas. For applications for reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or other improvement of existing buildings or structures located in an area prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1), the building official shall examine or cause to be examined the construction documents and shall prepare a finding with regard to the value of the proposed work. For buildings that have sustained damage of any origin, the value of the proposed work shall include the cost to repair the building or structure to its predamaged condition. If the building official finds that the value of proposed work equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building or structure before the damage has occurred or the improvement is started, the finding shall be provided to the board of appeals for a determination of substantial improvement or substantial damage. Applications determined by the board of appeals to constitute substantial improvement or substantial damage shall require all existing portions of the entire building or structure to meet the requirements of Section R322.

R105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that the building official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

R105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction.

R105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid unless the work authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

R105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

R105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy thereof shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the project.

R105.8 Responsibility. It shall be the duty of every person who performs work for the installation or repair of building, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing systems, for which this code is applicable, to comply with this code.

R105.9 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the building official is authorized to examine or cause to be examined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has been filed.

SECTION R106
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

R106.1 Submittal documents. Submittal documents consisting of construction documents, and other data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit. The

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construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to require additional construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and other data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that reviewing of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

R106.1.1 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be drawn upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the building official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the building official. Where required by the building official, all braced wall lines, shall be identified on the construction documents and all pertinent information including, but not limited to, bracing methods, location and length of braced wall panels, foundation requirements of braced wall panels at top and bottom shall be provided.

R106.1.2 Manufacturer’s installation instructions. Manufacturer’s installation instructions, as required by this code, shall be available on the job site at the time of inspection.

R106.1.3 Information for construction in flood hazard areas. For buildings and structures located in whole or in part in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), construction documents shall include:

  1. Delineation of flood hazard areas, floodway boundaries and flood zones and the design flood elevation, as appropriate;
  2. The elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including basement; in areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), the height of the proposed lowest floor, including basement, above the highest adjacent grade;
  3. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member in coastal high hazard areas (V Zone); and
  4. If design flood elevations are not included on the community’s Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the building official and the applicant shall obtain and reasonably utilize any design flood elevation and floodway data available from other sources.

R106.2 Site plan or plot plan. The construction documents submitted with the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan showing the size and location of new construction and existing structures on the site and distances from lot lines. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be demolished and the location and size of existing structures and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted.

R106.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined construction documents for code compliance.

R106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the building official issues a permit, the construction documents shall be approved in writing or by a stamp which states “REVIEWED FOR CODE COMPLIANCE.” One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the building official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the building official or his or her authorized representative.

R106.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.

R106.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or any other part of a building or structure before the construction documents for the whole building or structure have been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at the holder’s own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted.

R106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.

R106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the building official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.

SECTION R107
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES

R107.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be permitted for more than 180 days. The building official is authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause.

R107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and general welfare.

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R107.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of an electric installation before such installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in NFPA 70.

R107.4 Termination of approval. The building official is authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued.

SECTION R108
FEES

R108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the fees prescribed by law have been paid. Nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

R108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, electrical, gas mechanical and plumbing systems or alterations requiring a permit a fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

R108.3 Building permit valuations. Building permit valuation shall include total value of the work for which a permit is being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and other permanent systems, including materials and labor.

R108.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in connection with or concurrently with the work authorized by a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

R108.5 Refunds. The building official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

R108.6 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences work requiring a permit on a building, structure, electrical, gas mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the applicable governing authority that shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

SECTION R109
INSPECTION

R109.1 Types of inspections. For onsite construction, from time to time the building official, upon notification from their permit holder or his agent, shall make or cause to be made any necessary inspections and shall either approve that portion of the construction as completed or shall notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. The enforcing agency upon notification of the permit holder or their agent shall within a reasonable time make the inspections set forth in Sections R109.1.1, R109.1.1.1, R109.1.3, R109.1.4, R109.1.4.1, R109.1.5, R109.1.5.1, R109.1.5.2 and R109.1.6.

Note: Reinforcing steel or structural framework of any part of any building or structure shall not be covered or concealed without first obtaining the approval of the enforcing agency.

R109.1.1 Foundation inspection. Inspection of the foundation and footings shall be made after poles or piers are set or trenches or basement areas are excavated and any required forms erected and any required reinforcing steel is in place and supported prior to the placing of concrete. The foundation or footing inspection shall include excavations for thickened slabs intended for the support of bearing walls, partitions, structural supports, or equipment and special requirements for wood foundations. Materials for the foundation shall be on the job site except where concrete is ready-mixed in accordance with ASTM C 94. Under this circumstance concrete is not required to be at the job site.

R109.1.1.1 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. Concrete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service equipment, conduits, piping or other ancilary building trade products or equipment are installed, but before any concrete is placed or floor sheathing is installed, including the subfloor.

R109.1.2 Plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical systems inspection. Rough inspection of plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical systems shall be made prior to covering or concealment, before fixtures or appliances are set or installed, and prior to framing inspection.

Exception: Back-filling of ground-source heat pump loop systems tested in accordance with Section M2105.1 prior to inspection shall be permitted.

R109.1.3 Floodplain inspections. For construction in areas prone to flooding as established by Table R30.2(1), upon placement of the lowest floor, including basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the building official shall require submission of documentation, prepared and sealed by a registered design professional, of the elevation of the lowest floor, including basement, required in Section R322.

R109.1.4 Frame and masonry inspection. Inspection of framing and masonry construction shall be made after the roof, masonry, all framing, firestopping, draftstopping and bracing are in place and after chimneys and vents to be concealed are completed and the rough electrical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are approved.

R109.1.4.1 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath and gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints and fasteners are taped and finished.

R109.1.5 Other inspections. In addition to the called inspections above, the building official may make or require any other inspections to ascertain compliance with this code and other laws enforced by the building official.

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R109.1.5.1 Fire-resistance-rated construction inspection. Where fire-resistance-rated construction is required between dwelling units or due to location on property, the building official shall require and inspection of such construction after all lathing and/or wallboard is in place, but before any plaster is applied, or before wall-board joints and fasteners are taped and finished. Protection of joints and penetrations in fire resistance rated assemblies shall not be concealed from view until inspected and approved.

R109.1.5.2 Special Inspections. For special inspections, see California Building Code, Chapter 17.

R109.1.6 Final inspection. Final inspection shall be made after the permitted work is complete and prior to occupancy.

R109.2 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized to accept reports of approved agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.

R109.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the permit holder or their agent to notify the building official that such work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the person requesting any inspections required by this code to provide access to and means for inspection of such work.

R109.4 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official. The building official upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or shall notify the permit holder or an agent of the permit holder wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the building official.

SECTION R110
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY

R110.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy classification of a building or structure or portion there of shall be made until the building official has issued a certificate of occupancy there for as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Certificates presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid.

Exceptions:

  1. Certificates of occupancy are not required for work exempt from permits under Section R105.2.
  2. Accessory buildings or structures.

R110.2 Change in use. Changes in the character or use of an existing structure shall not be made except as specified in Sections 3406 and 3407 of the International Building Code.

R110.3 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects the building or structure and finds no violations of the provisions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety, the building official shall issue a certificate of occupancy which shall contain the following:

  1. The building permit number.
  2. The address of the structure.
  3. The name and address of the owner.
  4. A description of that portion of the structure for which the certificate is issued.
  5. A statement that the described portion of the structure has been inspected for compliance with the requirements of this code.
  6. The name of the building official.
  7. The edition of the code under which the permit was issued.
  8. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided and whether the sprinkler system is required.
  9. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building permit

R110.4 Temporary occupancy. The building official is authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The building official shall set a time period during which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid.

R110.5 Revocation. The building official shall, in writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

SECTION R111
SERVICE UTILITIES

R111.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a permit is required, until approved by the building official.

R111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall have the authority to authorize and approve the temporary connection of the building or system to the utility, source of energy, fuel or power.

R111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in Section R102.4 in case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such utility connection has been made without the approval required by Section R111.1 or R111.2. The building official shall notify the serving utility and whenever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action if not notified prior to disconnection. The owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as practical thereafter.

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SECTION R112
BOARD OF APPEALS

R112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the building official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The building official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have no vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the building official.

R112.2 Limitations an authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code.

R112.2.1 Determination of substantial improvement in areas prone to flooding. When the building official provides a finding required in Section R105.3.1.1, the board of appeals shall determine whether the value of the proposed work constitutes a substantial improvement. A substantial improvement means any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building or structure before the improvement or repair is started. If the building or structure has sustained substantial damage, all repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not include:

  1. Improvements of a building or structure required to correct existing health, sanitary or safety code violations identified by the building official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
  2. Any alteration of an historic building or structure, provided that the alteration will not preclude the continued designation as an historic building or structure. For the purpose of this exclusion, an historic building is:
    1. Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places; or
    2. Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined to qualify as an historic district; or
    3. Designated as historic under a state or local historic preservation program that is approved by the Department of Interior.

R112.2.2 Criteria for issuance of a variance for areas prone to flooding. A variance shall be issued only upon:

  1. A showing of good and sufficient cause that the unique characteristics of the size, configuration or topography of the site render the elevation standards in Section R322 inappropriate.
  2. A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship by rendering the lot undevelopable.
  3. A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, cause fraud on or victimization of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.
  4. A determination that the variance is the minimum necessary to afford relief, considering the flood hazard.
  5. Submission to the applicant of written notice specifying the difference between the design flood elevation and the elevation to which the building is to be built, stating that the cost of flood insurance will be commensurate with the increased risk resulting from the reduced floor elevation, and stating that construction below the design flood elevation increases risks to life and property.

R112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to building construction and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

R112.4 Administration. The building official shall take immediate action in accordance with the decision of the board.

SECTION R113
VIOLATIONS

R113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions, of this code.

R113.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a detail statement or a plan approved thereunder, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation.

R113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not complied with in the time prescribed by such notice, the building official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto.

R113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provision of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements there of or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or structure in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to penalities as prescribed by law.

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SECTION R114
STOP WORK ORDER

R114.1 Notice to owner. Upon notice from the building official that work on any building or structure is being prosecuted contrary to the provisions of this code or in an unsafe and dangerous manner, such work shall be immediately stopped. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent or to the person doing the work and shall state the conditions under which work will be permitted to resume.

R114.2 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue any work in or about the structure after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.

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CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL CODE – MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CALIFORNIA CHAPTER 2– DEFINITIONS
Adopting Agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS 1 2 3 4
Adopt Entire Chapter                                      
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below   X                                  
Chapter/Section                                    
R201.1   X                                  
R201.2   X                                  
R201.3   X X X                              
R201.4   X                                  
ACCESSORY STRUCTURE   X                                  
ADDITION   X                                  
AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION   X                                  
ALTERATION   X                                  
APPROVED   X X X                              
APPROVED AGENCY   X X X                              
APPROVED LISTING AGENCY   X X X                              
APPROVED TESTING AGENCY   X X X                              
ATTIC   X                                  
ATTIC, HABITABLE   X                                  
BASEMENT   X                                  
BEDRIDDEN PERSON   X                                  
BUILDING   X X X                              
BUILDING OFFICIAL   X                                  
BUILT-UP-ROOF-COVERING   X                                  
CARE AND SUPERVISION   X                                  
CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED   X                                  
CEILING HEIGHT   X                                  
CELLULAR CONCRETE     X X                              
CHILD-CARE CENTER   X                                  
CHILD OR CHILDREN   X                                  
CHRONICALLY ILL   X                                  
CLOSET   X                                  
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL   X                                  
CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH - FACILITY (CLHF)   X                                  
CONGREGATE RESIDENCE   X                                  
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS   X                                  
DAYCARE   X                                  
DAY-CARE HOME LARGE FAMILY   X                                  
DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY   X                                  
DEPARTMENT     X X                              
DESIGN PROFESSIONAL   X                                  25
Adopt Entire Chapter                                      
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below   X                                  
Chapter/Section                                      
DRAFT STOP   X                                  
DWELLING   X                                  
DWELLING UNIT   X                                  
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING   X                                  
ENFORCEMENT     X X                              
ENFORCING AGENCY   X X X                              
ENFORCEMENT AGENCY     X X                              
EXTERIOR WALL   X                                  
FAMILY     X X                              
FENESTRATION     X X                              
FIREBLOCKING   X                                  
FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD   X                                  
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE   X                                  
FLAME SPREAD   X                                  
FLAME SPREAD INDEX   X                                  
FULL-TIME CARE   X                                  
GRADE   X                                  
GRADE FLOOR OPENING   X                                  
GRADE PLANE   X                                  
HABITABLE SPACE   X                                  
HANDRAIL   X                                  
HAZARDOUS LOCATION   X                                  
HEIGHT, BUILDING   X                                  
HEIGHT, STORY   X                                  
IGNITION SOURCE   X                                  
INFANT   X                                  
LABEL   X                                  
LABELED   X X X                              
LIMITED-DENSITY OWNER-BUILT RURAL DWELLINGS     X X                              
LISTED   X X X                              
LISTING AGENCY     X X                              
LIVING SPACE   X                                  
LOT   X                                  
LOT LINE   X                                  
MARK   X                                  26
Adopt Entire Chapter                                      
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below   X                                  
Chapter/Section                                      
MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY OR SEVERELY   X                                  
METAL ROOF PANEL   X                                  
METAL ROOF SHINGLE   X                                  
MEZZANINE, LOFT   X                                  
MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM   X                                  
NONAMBULATORY PERSONS   X                                  
NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL   X                                  
OCCUPIED SPACE   X                                  
OWNER   X                                  
PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR     X X                              
PROTECTIVE SOCIAL CARE FACILITY   X                                  
PUBLIC WAY   X                                  
RAMP   X                                  
REPAIR   X                                  
REROOFING   X                                  
RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONICALLY ILL (RCF/CI)   X                                  
RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY (RCFE)   X                                  
PRESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF)   X                                  
RESTRAINT   X                                  
ROOF ASSEMBLY   X                                  
ROOF COVERING   X                                  
ROOF COVERING SYSTEM   X                                  
ROOFDECK   X                                  
ROOF RECOVER   X                                  
ROOF REPAIR   X                                  
ROOFTOP STRUCTURE   X                                  
SHALL   X                                  
SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM   X                                  
SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX   X                                  
STAIR   X                                  
STAIRWAY   X                                  
STATE-OWNED/LEASED BUILDING   X                                  27
Adopt Entire Chapter                                      
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below   X                                  
Chapter/Section                                      
STORY   X                                  
STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE   X                                  
STRUCTURE   X                                  
TERMINALLY ILL   X                                  
TESTING AGENCY     X X                              
TOWNHOUSE   X                                  
28

Part II—Definitions

CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

SECTION R201
GENERAL

R201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings indicated in this chapter.

R201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.

R201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not defined in this code such terms shall have meanings ascribed to them as in the California Building Standards Code, Title 24, California Code of Regulations.

R201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

For applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Webster’s Third New California Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

SECTION R202
DEFINITIONS

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. A structure not greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in floor area, and not over two stories in height, the use of which is customarily accessory to and incidental to that of the dwelling(s) and which is located on the same lot.

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.

ADHERED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or masonry veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding material applied to an approved backing.

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION. A facility used for the housing of persons 65 years of age or older in need of care and supervision. (See definition of “care and supervision”)

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.

ANCHORED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or masonry veneer secured with approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing.

ANCHORS. See “Supports.”

APPROVED. Meeting the approval of the enforcing agency, except as otherwise provided by law, when used in connection with any system, material, type of construction, fixture or appliance as the result of investigations and tests conducted by the agency, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by national authorities or technical, health, or scientific organizations or agencies.

Notes:

  1. See Health and Safety Code Section 17920 for “approved” as applied to residential construction and buildings or structures accessory thereto, as referenced in Section 1.8.1.1.1.
  2. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.1 for “approved” as applied to the use of hotplates in residential construction referenced in Section 1.8.1.1.1.
  3. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.3 for “approved” as applied to low-flush water closets in residential construction, as referenced in Section 1.8.1.1.1.
  4. See Health and Safety Code Section 19966 for “approved” as applied to factory-built housing as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.5.
  5. See Health and Safety Code Section 18201 for “Approved” as applied to mobilehome parks as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.2.
  6. See Health and Safety Code Section 18862.1 for “Approved” as applied to special occupancy parks as referenced in Section 1.8.2.2.3.

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services, when such agency has been approved by the building official. “Approved agency” shall mean “Listing agency” and “Testing agency.”

ASPECTRATIO. The ratio of longest to shortest perpendicular dimensions, or for wall sections, the ratio of height to length.

ATTIC. The unfinished space between the ceiling assembly of the top story and the roof assembly.

ATTIC, HABITABLE. A finished or unfinished area, not considered a story, complying with all of the following requirements:

  1. The occupiable floor area is at least 70 square feet (17 m2), in accordance with Section R304,
  2. The occupiable floor area has a ceiling height in accordance with Section R305, and
  3. The occupiable space is enclosed by the roof assembly above, knee walls (if applicable) on the sides and the floor-ceiling assembly below.

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or completely below grade (see “Story above grade”).

BASEMENT WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses one side of a basement and has an average below grade wall area that is 50 percent or more of the total opaque and non-opaque area of that enclosing side.

BASIC WIND SPEED. Three-second gust speed at 33 feet (10 058 mm) above the ground in Exposure C (see Section R301.2.1) as given in Figure R301.2(4).

BEDRIDDEN PERSON. A person, requiring assistance in turning and repositioning in bed, or being unable to independently transfer to and from bed, except in facilities with appropriate and sufficient care staff, mechanical devices if necessary, and safety precautions as determined in Title 22 regulations, by the Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative.

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative shall make the determination of the bedridden status of persons with developmental disabilities, in consultation with the Director of Developmental Services or his or her designated representative.

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative shall make the determination of the bedridden status of all other persons with disabilities who are not developmentally disabled.

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.

BRACED WALL LINE. A straight line through the building plan that represents the location of the lateral resistance provided by the wall bracing.

BRACED WALL LINE, CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED. A braced wall line with structural sheathing applied to all sheathable surfaces including the areas above and below openings.

BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall constructed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction of framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The panel’s length meets the requirements of its particular bracing method, and contributes toward the total amount of bracing required along its braced wall line in accordance with Section R602.10.1.

BUILDING. Building shall mean any one- and two-family dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, that is used, or designed or intended to be used for human habitation, for living, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any combination thereof, and shall include accessory structures thereto.

Exceptions: For applications listed in Section 1.8.1 regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development, “Building” shall not include the following:

  1. Any mobilehome as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.
  2. Any manufactured home as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18007.
  3. Any commercial modular as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18001.8 or any special purpose commercial modular as defined in Section 18012.5.
  4. Any recreational vehicle as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18010.
  5. Any multifamily manufactured home as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.7.

    For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 18908.

Note: Building shall have the same meaning as defined in Health and Safety Code Sections 17920 and 18908 for the applications specified in Section 1.11.

BUILDING, EXISTING. Existing building is a building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued.

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code.

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material.

CAP PLATE. The top plate of the double top plates used in structural insulated panel (SIP) construction. The cap plate is cut to match the panel thickness such that it overlaps the wood structural panel facing on both sides.

CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the finished floor to the finished ceiling.

CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of portland or blended cement, portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.

CHILD-CARE CENTER. Any facility of any capacity other than a large or small family day-care home as defined in these regulations in which less than 24-hour-per-day nonmedical supervision is provided for children in a group setting.

CHILD OR CHILDREN. A person or persons under the age of 18 years.

CHRONICALLY ILL. See “TERMINALLY ILL.”

CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind.

CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage.

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Any material not defined as noncombustible.

CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF), A residential home with a capacity of no more than six beds, which provides inpatient care, including the following basic services: medical supervision, 24-hour skilled nursing and supportive care, pharmacy, dietary, social recreational, and at least provides services for persons who are diagnosed with a terminal illness or who are catastorphically and severely disabled.

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. Any building or portion thereof that contains facilities for living, sleeping and sanitation, as required by this code, and may include facilities for eating and cooking, for occupancy by other than a family. A congregate residence may be a shelter, convent, monastery, dormitory, fraternity or sorority house, but does not include jails, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels or lodging houses.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.

CORE. The light-weight middle section of the structural insulated panel composed of foam plastic insulation, which provides the link between the two facing shells.

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.

COURT. A space, open and unobstructed to the sky, located at or above grade level on a lot and bounded on three or more sides by walls or a building.

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed wall extending from the top of the foundation to the underside of the floor framing of the first story above grade plane.

DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast matrix of concrete or epoxy.

DAY-CARE shall, for the purposes of these regulations, mean the care of persons during any period of a 24-hour day where permanent sleeping accommodations are not provided.

Note: “Day-care” shall not be construed to preclude the use of cots or mats for napping purposes, provided all employees, attendants and staff personnel are awake and on duty in the area where napping occurs.

DAY-CARE HOME, FAMILY. A home that regularly provides care, protection and supervision for 14 or fewer children, in the provider’s own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day, while the parents or guardians are away, and is either a large family day-care home or a small family day-care home.

DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. A provider’s own home which is licensed to provide day care for periods less than 24 hours per day for nine to 14 persons, including children under the age of 10 years who reside at the home.

DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. A home which provides family day-care to eight or fewer children, including children under the age of 10 years who reside at the home, in the provider’s own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day. Small family day-care homes are exempted from state fire and life safety regulations other than those state and local standards applicable to Group R-3 Occupancies. [See Health and Safety Code, Sections 13143 (b).]

DEAD LOADS. The weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment.

DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing material; and whose surface, or assembly into which it is incorporated, is divided into segments.

DEPARTMENT. The Department of Housing and Community Development.

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. See “Registered design professional.”

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. When the term “diapharagm” is used, it includes horizontal bracing systems.

DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed

31

areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics.

DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for living purposes.

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable exterior window, door or similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.

ENFORCEMENT. Notwithstanding other provisions of law, the applicable section of the Health and Safety Code, Section 17920, is repeated here for clarity:

“Enforcement” means diligent effort to secure compliance, including review of plans and permit applications, response to complaints, citation of violations and other legal process. Except as otherwise provided in this part, “enforcement” may, but need not, include inspections of existing buildings on which no complaint or permit application has been filed, and effort to secure compliance as to these existing buildings.

ENFORCING AGENCY. The designated department or agency as specified by statute or regulation.

ENFORCEMENT AGENCY. See “ENFORCING AGENCY.”

ESCARPMENT. With respect to topographic wind effects, a cliff or steep slope generally separating two levels or gently sloping areas.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing exterior wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat; and a textured protective finish coat.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier.

EXTERIOR WALL. An above-grade wall that defines the exterior boundaries of a building. Includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and basement walls with an average below-grade wall area that is less than 50 percent of the total opaque and nonopaque area of that enclosing side.

FACING. The wood structural panel facings that form the two outmost rigid layers of the structural insulated panel.

FAMILY. An individual or two or more persons who are related by blood or marriage; or otherwise, live together in a dwelling unit.

FENESTRATION.See “Fenestration Product” as defined in Title 24, Part 6, the California Energy Code.

FIBER-CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-reinforcing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium silicate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced with discrete organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers, or both. Additives which enhance manufacturing or product performance are permitted. Fiber-cement siding products have either smooth or textured faces and are intended for exterior wall and related applications.

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials or materials approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to other areas of the building through concealed spaces.

FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a health and fire chamber of noncombustible material and provided with a chimney, for use with solid fuels.

Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and chimney system composed of factory-made components, and assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and the conditions of the listing.

Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete.

Masonry fireplace. A field-constructed fireplace composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete.

FIREPLACE STOVE. A free-standing, chimney-connected solid-fuel-burning heater designed to be operated with the fire chamber doors in either the open or closed position.

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.

FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD. Pressure-treated lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire.

Other means during manufacture. A process where the wood raw material is treated with a fire-retardant formulation while undergoing creation as a finished product.

Pressure process. A process for treating wood using an initial vacuum followed by the introduction of pressure above atmospheric.

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:

  1. To the closest interiorlot line; or
  2. To the centerline for a street, an alley or public way; or
  3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot.

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads or winders or combination thereof from one landing to another.

FOAM BACKER BOARD. Foam plastic used in siding applications where the foam plastic is a component of the siding.

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intentionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a

32

reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insulating or acoustic purposes and that has a density less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3) unless it is used as interior trim.

FOAM PLASTIC INTERIOR TRIM. Exposed foam plastic used as picture molds, chair rails, crown moldings, baseboards, handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications.

FULL-TIME CARE shall mean the establishment and routine care of persons on an hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or permanent basis, whether for 24-hours per day or less, and where sleeping accommodations are provided.

GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed fenestration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes the area of glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned basements.

GRADE. The finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls.

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 ft (1829 mm) from the building between the structure and a point 6 ft (1829 mm) from the building.

GROSS AREA OF EXTERIOR WALLS. The normal projection of all exterior walls, including the area of all windows and doors installed therein.

GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to the lower level.

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface.

HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.

HILL. With respect to topographic wind effects, a land surface characterized by strong relief in any horizontal direction.

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 miles per hour (40 m/s), and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, and America Samoa.

INFANT, for the purpose of these regulations, shall mean any child who because of age only, is unable to walk and requires the aid of another person to evacuate the building. In no case shall the term “infant” mean a child 2 years of age or older.

INSULATING CONCRETE FORM (ICF). A concrete forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plastic insulation, a hybrid of cement and foam insulation, a hybrid of cement and wood chips, or other insulating material for constructing cast-in-place concrete walls.

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board having a minimum thermal resistance of R-2 of the core material.

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

KITCHEN. Kitchen shall mean an area used, or designated to be used, for the preparation of food.

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer which contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material, and the name and identification of an approved agencyand that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency. (See also “Manufacturer’s designation” and “Mark.”).

LABELED. [SFM] Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LABELED. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Labeled means equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol or other identifying mark of an organization, approved by the Department, that maintains a periodic inspection program of production of labeled products, installations, equipment or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel framing members.

LIMITED-DENSITY OWNER-BUILT RURAL DWELLINGS. Any structure consisting of one or more habitable rooms intended or designed to be occupied by one family with facilities for living or sleeping, with use restricted to rural areas designated by local jurisdiction. Notwithstanding other sections of law, the applicable section of Health and Safety Code Section 17958.2 is repeated here for clarification purposes.

33

Section 17958.2.(a) Notwithstanding Section 17958, regulations of the department adopted for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings, which are codified in Article 8 (commencing with Section 74) of Subchapter 1 of Chapter 1 of Title 25 of the California Code of Regulations, shall not become operative within any city or county unless and until the governing body of the city or county makes an express finding that the application of those regulations within the city or county is reasonably necessary because of local conditions and the city or county files a copy of that finding with the department.

(b) In adopting ordinances or regulations for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings, a city or county may make such changes or modifications in the requirements contained in Article 8 (commencing with Section 74) of Subchapter 1 of Chapter 1 of Title 25 of the California Code of Regulations that it determines are reasonably necessary because of local conditions, if the city or county files a copy of the changes or modifications and the express findings for the changes or modifications with the department. No change or modification of that type shall become effective or operative for any purpose until the finding and the change or modification has been filed with the department.

LISTED.[HCD 1 & HCD 2] All products that appear in a list published by an approved testing or listing agency. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(h).)

LISTED. [SFM]Equipment,materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipmentor materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. For applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, “listed” shall also mean equipment or materials accepted by the state fire marshal as conforming to the provisions of the State Fire Marshal’s regulations and which are included in a list published by the State Fire Marshal.

LISTING AGENCY. An agency approved by the department that is in the business of listing and labeling products, materials, equipment and installations tested by an approved testing agency, and that maintains a periodic inspection program on current production of listed products, equipment and installations, and that, at least annually, makes available a published report of these listings. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(i).

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.

LIVING SPACE. Space within a dwelling unitutilized for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, bathing, washing and sanitation purposes.

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.

MANUFACTURER’S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules. (See also “Mark” and “Label.”)

MANUFACTURER’S INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS. Printed instructions included with equipment as part of the conditions of listing and labeling.

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function of a product or material. (See also “Manufacturer’s designation” and “Label.”)

MASONRY CHIMNEY. A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete.

MASONRY HEATER. A masonry heater is a solid fuel burning heating applianceconstructed predominantly of concrete or solid masonry having a mass of at least 1,100 pounds (500 kg), excluding the chimney and foundation. It is designed to absorb and store a substantial portion of heat from a fire built in the firebox by routing exhaust gases through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox includes at least one 180-degree (3.14-rad) change in flow direction before entering the chimney and which deliver heat by radiation through the masonry surface of the heater.

MASONRY, SOLID. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled with mortar.

MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 2103 of the California Building Code.

Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof.

Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.

Glass. Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

Solid.A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is 75 percent or more of its cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave height and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less than or equal to 10 degrees (0.18 rad).

METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having a minimum installed weather exposure of at least 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.

MEZZANINE, LOFT. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which the level or levels are located.

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate or held in place with an approved ballast layer.

MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate.

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species with the exception that an occasional piece with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.

Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.

Termite resistant. Alaska yellow cedar, redwood, Eastern red cedar and Western red cedar including all sapwood of Western red cedar.

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS are persons unable to leave a building unassisted under emergency conditions. It includes, but is not limited to, persons who depend on mechanical aids such as crutches, walkers and wheelchairs and any person who is unable to physically and mentally respond to a sensory signal approved by the state fire marshal or an oral instruction relating to fire danger.

The determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of persons with developmental disabilities shall be made by the Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative, in consultation with the director of Developmental Services or his or her designated representative. The determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of all other disable persons placed after January 1, 1984, who are not developmentally disabled shall be made by the Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL.Noncombustible as applied to building construction material means a material which, in the form in which it is used, is either one of the following:

  1. Material of which no part will ignite and burn when subjected to fire. Any material passing ASTM E 136 shall be considered noncombustible.
  2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible material as defined in Item 1 above, with a surfacing material not over ⁄ inch (3.2 mm) thick which has a flame-spread index of 50 or less.

“Noncombustible” does not apply to surface finish materials. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clearances to flues, heating appliances or other sources of high temperature shall refer to material conforming to Item 1. No material shall be classed as noncombustible which is subject to increase in combustibility or flame-spread index, beyond the limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric condition.

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.

OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or structures on any lot or parcel of ground projected on a horizontal plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this code.

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.

PANEL THICKNESS. Thickness of core plus two layers of structural wood panel facings.

PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR. Uses architectural components, rather than mechanical components, to provide heating or cooling for a building interior.

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction that authorizes performance of a specified activity.

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.

PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION. A method of construction by which floor framing bears on load bearing walls that are not continuous through the storylevels or floor framing.

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in which consideration has been made for all loading deflections of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation.

PRECASE CONCRETE. A structural concrete element cast elsewhere than its final position in the structure.

PRECAST CONCRETE FOUNDATION WALLS. Preengineered, precast concrete wall panels that are designed to withstand specified stresses and used to build below-grade foundations.

PROTECTIVE SOCIAL CARE FACILITY. A facility housing persons, who are referred, placed or caused to be placed in the facility, by any governmental agency and for whom the services, or a portion thereof, are paid for by any governmental agency. These occupancies shall include, but are not limited to, those commonly referred to as “assisted living facilities, ” “social rehabilitation facilities,” "certified family care homes,” “out-of-home placement facilities” and “halfway houses.”

PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a public street, which has been

35

deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

REPAIR. The reconstrucion or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance.

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering See “Roof recover”.

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONICALLY ILL (RCF/CI), as termed, means a housing arrangement with a maximum capacity of 25 residents that provides a range of services to residents who have chronic, life-threatening illnesses.

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY (RCFE), as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1569.2, shall mean a facility with a housing arrangement chosen voluntarily by persons 60 years of age or over, or their authorized representative, where varying levels and intensities of care and supervision, protective supervision or personal care are provided, based on their varying needs, as determined in order to be admitted and to remain in the facility. Persons under 60 years of age with compatible needs, as determined by the Department of Social Services in regulations, may be allowed to be admitted or retained in a residential-care facility for the elderly.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regulations of the State Fire Marshal pertaining to Group R, Division 2 Occupancies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residential-care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is in consistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by the State Fire Marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geological or topographical conditions relating to roof coverings for Residential-care Facilities for the Elderly.

RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF), as defined in Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code, shall mean any family home, group care facility or similar facility determined by the director of Social Services, for 24-hour nonmedical care of persons in need of personal services, supervision, or assistance essential for sustaining the activities of daily living or for the protection of the individual. Such facilities include small family homes and social rehabilitation facilities.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regulations of the State Fire Marshal pertaining to Group R Occupancies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residential-care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and count, including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is in consistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by the State Fire Marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geological or topographical conditions relating to roof coverings for Residential-care Facilities for the Elderly.

RESTRAINT. The physical retention of a person within a room, cell or cell block by any means, or within the exterior walls of a building by means of locked doors inoperable by the person restrained. Restraint shall also mean the physical binding, strapping or similar restriction of any person in a chair, walker, bed or other contrivance for the purpose of deliberately restricting the free movement of ambulatory persons.

Restraint shall not be construed to include nonambulatory persons nor shall it include the use of bandage material, strip sheeting or other fabrics or materials (soft ties) used to restrain persons in hospital-type beds or wheelchairs to prevent injury, provided an approved method of quick release is maintained. Facilities employing the use of soft ties, however, shall be classified as a building used to house nonambulatory persons.

Restraint shall not be practiced in licensed facilities classified as Group I-1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies unless constructed as a Group 1-3 occupancy. For Group I-3 Occupancies see Section 308.4 of the California Building Code.

RIDGE. With respect to topographic wind effects, an elongated crest of a hill characterized by strong relief in two directions.

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The systems consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation, vapor retarder, and roof covering.

ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance.

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See “Roof assembly”.

ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface not including its supporting members or vertical supports.

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering.

ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance.

36

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a building.

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length.

SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water to drain from a roof.

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC). A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.

SHALL. The term, when used in the code, is construed as mandatory.

SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by use of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing in accordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated limitations in Section R301.2 of this code.

SINGLE PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrance that is field applied using one layer of membrance material (either homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers.

SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, control equipment and alarm sounding device in one unit that is operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

SKYLIGHT AND SLOPED GLAZING. See Section R 308.6.1.

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. See Section R308.6.1.

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A compartive measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing construction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Solid masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 55, C 62, C 73, C 145 or C 216.

SPLINE. A strip of wood structural panel cut from the same material used for the panel facings, used to connect two structural insulated panels. The strip (spline) fits into a groove cut into the vertical edges of the two structural insulated panels to be joined. Splines are used behind each facing of the structural insulated panels being connected as shown in Figure R613.8.

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than running bond.

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either interior or exterior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another within or attached to a building, porch or deck.

STATE-OWNED/LEASED BUILDING. A building or portion of a building that is owned, leased or rented by the state. State-leased buildings shall include all required exits to a public way serving such leased area or space. Portions of state-leased buildings that are not leased or rented by the state shall not be included within the scope of this section unless such portions present an exposure hazard to the state-leased area or space.

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above.

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the basement meets any one of the following:

  1. Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane.
  2. Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground level for more than 50 percent of the total building perimeter.
  3. Is more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.

STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL (SIP). A structural sandwhich panel that consists of a light-weight foam plastic core securely laminated between two thin, rigid wood structural panel facings.

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure’sexterior walls and roof.

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting, having and securing pipes, fixtures and equipment.

TERMINALLY ILL, as termed for an individual, means the individual has a life expectancy of six months or less as stated in writing by his or her attending physician and surgeon.

TERMITE-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Pressure-preservative treated wood in accordance with the AWPA standards in Section R318.1, naturally durable termite-resistant wood, steel, concrete, masonry or other approved material.

TESTING AGENCY. An agency approved by the department as qualified and equipped for testing of products, materials, equipment and installations in accordance with nationally recognized standards. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920 (m).

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from foundation to roof and with a yard or public way on at least two sides.

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door and window frames, and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications.

37

TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an individual truss, which describes the design and physical characteristics of the truss.

UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing paper, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved material over which a roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17-percent slope) or greater, is applied.

VAPOR PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or covering having a permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9.1010 kg/Pa . s . m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of the ability of a material or assembly to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method with Procedure A of ASTM E 96 as follows:

Class I: 0.1 perm or less

Class II: 0.1 <perm≤1.0 perm

Class III: 1.0 <perm≤10 perm

VEHICULAR ACCESS DOOR. A door that is used primarily for vehicular traffic at entrances of buildings such as garages and parking lots, and that is not generally used for pedestrian traffic.

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VENTING. Removal of combustion products to the outdoors.

VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used to cover exterior walls of buildings.

WALL, RETAINING. A wall not laterally supported at the top, that resists lateral soil load and other imposed loads.

WALLS. Walls shall be defined as follows:

Load-bearing wall is a wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its own weight.

Nonbearing wall. is a wall which does not support vertical loads other than its own weight.

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further intruding into the exterior wall assembly.

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurricane-prone regions within one mile of the coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) or greater; or where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 120 miles per hour (54 m/s); or Hawaii.

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.

WOOD/PLASTIC COMPOSITE. A composite material made primarily from wood or cellulose-based materials and plastic.

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers; or wood strands or waters; bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are plywood, OSB or composite panels.

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by this code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

38
CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL CODE – MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CALIFORNIA CHAPTER 3 – BUILDING PLANNING
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS 1 2 3 4
Adopt entire chapter                                      
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are
listed below
  X                                  
Chapter/Section                                      
R301.1   X                                  
R301.1.1     X X                              
R301.1.1.1     X X                              
R301.1.3     X X                              
R301.1.3.1     X X                              
R301.1.3.2     X X                              
R301.1.3.3     X X                              
Table R301.2(1)     X X                              
R301.2.2.1.1     X X                              
R301.2.2.1.2     X X                              
R301.2.2.3.7     X X                              
R301.2.2.4     X X                              
R301.3     X X                              
R302.1   X X X                              
Table R302.1(1)   X X X                              
Table R302.1(2)   X X X                              
R302.2   X X X                              
R302.5.1   X X X                              
R302.6   X X X                              
Table 302.6   X                                  
R302.9.4   X                                  
R302.9.5   X                                  
R302.13   X X X                              
R302.1     X X                              
R303.3     X X                              
R303.6   X                                  
R303.6.1   X                                  
R303.7   X X X                              
R303.7.1     X                              
R303.7.1.1     X X                              
R303.8   X X X                              
R304.1   X                                  
R304.2   X                                  
R304.3   X X X                              
R304.4   X                                  
R305.1   X                                  
R305.1.1   X                                  
R306.1   X                                  39
Adopt entire chapter                                      
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below   X                                  
Chapter/Section                                      
R307.1     X X                              
R308.3 through R308.4   X                                  
R308.5     X X                              
R309.4     X X                              
R309.5     X X                              
R309.6     X X                              
R310 through R310.4   X                                  
R311 through R31108.3.3   X                                  
R312.2   X X X                              
R312.3   X                                  
R312.4   X                                  
R313.1   X                                  
R313.1.1   X X X                              
R313.2   X X X                              
R313.2.1   X X X                              
R313.3 through R313.3.8.2   X                                  
R314 through R314.6.3   X                                  
R315.1     X X                              
R315.1.1     X X                              
R315.1.2     X X                              
R315.2     X X                              
R315.3     X X                              
R315.3.1     X X                              
R316.3 through R316.4   X                                  
R316.5.8 through R316.5.11   X                                  
R319   X                                  
R320.1     X X                              
R321.3     X X                              
R322.1.6     X X                              
R322.1.7     X X                              
R322.19                                  
R325 through R325.8   X X                                
R326 through R326.8   X                                  
R327 through R327.10.4   X                                  
R328 through R328.4   X                                  
40

Part III—Building Planning and Construction

CHAPTER 3
BUILDING PLANNING

SECTION R301
DESIGN CRITERIA

R301.1 Application. Buildings and structures, and all parts thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The construction of buildings and structures in accordance with the provisions of this code shall result in a system that provides a complete load path that meets all requirements for the transfer of all loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to the foundation. Buildings and structures constructed as prescribed by this code are deemed to comply with the requirements of this section.

Existing buildings housing existing protective social care homes or facilities established prior to 1972 (see Section 3413 of the California Building Code).

R301.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section R301.1 the following standards are permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein. Where engineered design is used in conjunction with these standards, the design shall comply with the California Building Code.

  1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
  2. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing—Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
  3. ICC-400 Standard on the Design and Construction of Log Structures.

R301.1.1.1 Alternative provisions for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings. The purpose of this subsection is to permit alternatives that provide minimum protection of life, limb, health, property, safety and welfare of the general public and the owners and occupants of limited-density owner-built rural dwellings as defined in Chapter 2 of this code. For additional information see Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, Article 8, of Title 25, California Code of Regulations, commencing with Section 74.

To meet compliance with the requirements of this code, provisions of Section R301.1.1.1, Items 1 though 5 may be utilized for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings when the materials, methods of construction or appliances are determined appropriate or suitable for their intended purpose by the local enforcing agency.

  1. A limited-density owner-built rural dwelling may be of any type of construction which will provide for a sound structural condition. Structural hazards which result in an unsound condition and which may constitute a substandard building are delineated in Section 17920.3 of the Health and Safety Code.
  2. There shall be no requirements for room dimensions as required in Chapter 3, provided there is adequate light and ventilation and means of egress.
  3. There shall be no specified requirements for heating capacity or for temperature maintenance. The use of solid-fuel or solar heating devices shall be deemed as complying with the requirements of Chapter 3. If nonrenewable fuel is used in these dwellings, rooms so heated shall meet current installation standards.
  4. Pier foundations, stone masonry footings and foundations, pressure-treated lumber, poles or equivalent foundation materials or designs may be used provided that bearing is sufficient.
  5. Owner-produced or used materials and appliances may be utilized unless found not to be of sufficient strength or durability to perform the intended function. Owner-produced or used lumber, or shakes and shingles may be utilized unless found to contain dry rot, excessive splitting or other defects obviously rendering the material unfit in strength or durability for the intended purpose.

R301.1.2 Construction systems. The requirements of this code are based on platform and balloon-frame construction for light-frame buildings. The requirements for concrete and masonry buildings are based on a balloon framing system. Other framing systems must have equivalent detailing to ensure force transfer, continuity and compatible deformations.

R301.1.3 Engineered design. When a building of other-wise conventional construction contains structural elements exceeding the limits of Section R301 or otherwise not conforming to this code, these elements shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. The extent of such design need only demonstrate compliance of nonconventional elements with other applicable provisions and shall be compatible with the performance of the conventional framed system. Engineered design in accordance with the California Building Code is permitted for all buildings and structures, and parts thereof, included in the scope of this code.

41

R301.1.3.1 California licensed architect or engineer. When any portion of any structure deviates from substantial compliance with conventional framing requirements for woodframe construction found in this code, the building official shall require the construction documents to be approved and stamped by a California licensed architect or engineer for that irregular or nonconforming portion of work. Notwithstanding other sections of law, the law establishing these provisions is found in Business and Professions Code Sections 5537 and 6737.1.

R301.1.3.2 Woodframe structures greater than two-stories. These building official shall require construction documents to be approved and stamped by a California licensed architect or engineer for all dwellings of woodframe construction more than two stories and basement in height. Notwithstanding other sections of law, the law establishing these provisions is found in Business and Professions Code Sections 5537 and 6737.1.

R301.1.3.3 Structures other than woodframe. The building official shall require floor, wall or roof-ceiling structural elements in dwellings designed of cold-formed steel, concrete, masonry or structural insulated panels prescribed by this code to be approved and stamped by a California licensed architect or engineer. Notwithstanding other sections of law, the law establishing these provisions is found in Business and Professions Code Sections 5537 and 6737.1.

R301.2 Climatic and geographic design criteria. Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional criteria shall be established by the local jurisdiction and set forth in Table R301.2(1).

R301.2.1 Wind limitations. Buildings and portions thereof shall be limited by wind speed, as defined in Table R301.2(1) and construction methods in accordance with this code. Basic wind speeds shall be determined from Figure R301.2(4). Where different construction methods and structural materials are used for various portions of a building, the applicable requirements of this section for each portion shall apply. Where loads for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors are not otherwise specified, the loads listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) shall be used to determine design load performance requirements for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors. Asphalt shingles shall be designed for wind speeds in accordance with Section R905.2.6.

R301.2.1.1 Design criteria. In regions where the basic wind speeds from Figure R301.2(4) equal or exceed 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) in hurricane-prone regions, or 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) elsewhere, the design of buildings shall be in accordance with one of the following methods. The elements of design not addressed by those documents in Items 1 through 4 shall be in accordance with this code.

  1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings(WFCM); or
  2. California Code Council (ICC) Standard for Residential Construction in High Wind Regions (ICC-600); or
  3. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE-7); or
  4. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing—Prescriptive Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
  5. Concrete construction shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code.
  6. Structural insulated panel (SIP) walls shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code.

R301.2.1.2 Protection of openings. Windows in buildings located in windborne debris regions shall have glazed openings protected from windborne debris. Glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of ASTM E 1996 and ASTM E 1886 referenced therein. Garage door glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of an approved impact resisting standard or ANSI/DASMA 115.

Exception: Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 7/16 inch (11 mm) and a maximum span of 8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection in one- and two-story buildings. Panels shall be precut and attached to the framing surrounding the opening containing the product with the glazed opening. Panels shall be predrilled as required for the anchorage method and shall be secured with the attachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be designed to resist the component and cladding loads determined in accordance with either Table R301.2(2) or ASCE 7, with the permanent corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided and anchors permanently installed on the building. Attachment in accordance with Table R301.2.1.2 is permitted for buildings with a mean roof height of 33 feet (10 058 mm) or less where windspeeds do not exceed 130 miles per hour (58 m/s).

42
TABLE R301.2(1)
CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA
GROUND SNOW LOAD WIND DESIGN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYf SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM WINTER DESIGN TEMPe ICE BARRIER UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREDh FLOOD HAZARDSg AIR FREEZING INDEXi MEAN ANNUAL TEMPj
Speedd (mph) Topographic effectsk Weatheringa Frost line depthb Termitec
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a.Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column shall be filled in with the weathering index (i.e., “negligible,”“moderate,” or “severe”) for concrete as determined from the Weathering Probability Map [Figure R301.2(3)]. The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652.
b. The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403.1(1). The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum depth of footing below finish grade.
c.The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table to indicate the need for protection depending on whether there has been a history of local subterranean termite damage.
d. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the wind speed from the basic wind speed map [FigureR301.2(4)]. Wind exposure category shall be determined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4.
e. Temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building official.
f. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the seismic design category determined from Section R301.2.2.1.
g. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of the jurisdiction’s entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates of all currently effective FIRMs and FBFMs or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority having jurisdiction, as amended.
h. In accordance with Sections R905.2.7.1, R905.4.3.1, R905.5.3.1, R905.6.3.1, R905.7.3.1, and R905.8.3.1, where there has been a history of local damage from the effects of ice dam ming, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with “YES.” Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with “NO.”
i. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the 100-year return period air freezing index (BF-days) from Figure R403.3(2) or from the 100-year (99%) value on the National Climatic Data Center data table “Air Freezing Index- USA Method (Base 32°)” at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html.
j. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the mean annual temperature from the National Climatic Data Center data table “Air Freezing Index-USA Method (Base 32°F)” at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html.
k. In accordance with Section R301.2.1.5, where there is local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings due to topographic wind speed-up effects, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with “YES.” Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall indicate “NO” in this part of the table.
                       
43
TABLE R301.2(2)
COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B (psf)a, b, c, d, e
  ZONE EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (feet2) BASIC WIND SPEED (mph—3-second gust)
85 90 100 105 110 120 125 130 140 145 150 170
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
Notes:
a. The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not be less than one-third the span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener.
b. For effective areas between those given above, the load may be interpolated; otherwise, use the load associated with the lower effective area.
c. Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3).
d. See Figure R301.2(7) for location of zones.
e. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
Roof > 0 to 10 degrees 1 10 10.0 -13.0 10.0 -14.6 10.0 -18.0 10.0 -19.8 10.0 -21.8 10.5 -25.9 11.4 -28.1 12.4 -30.4 14.3 -35.3 15.4 -37.8 16.5 -40.5 21.1 -52.0
1 20 10.0 -12.7 10.0 -14.2 10.0 -17.5 10.0 -19.3 10.0 -21.2 10.0 -25.2 10.7 -27.4 11.6 -29.6 13.4 -34.4 14.4 -36.9 15.4 -39.4 19.8 -50.7
1 50 10.0 -12.2 10.0 -13.7 10.0 -16.9 10.0 -18.7 10.0 -20.5 10.0 -24.4 10.0 -26.4 10.6 -28.6 12.3 -33.2 13.1 -35.6 14.1 -38.1 18.1 -48.9
1 100 10.0 -11.9 10.0 -13.3 10.0 -18.5 10.0 -18.2 10.0 -19.9 10.0 -23.7 10.0 -25.7 10.0 -27.8 11.4 -32.3 12.2 -34.6 13.0 -37.0 16.7 -47.6
2 10 10.0 -21.8 10.0 -24.4 10.0 -30.2 10.0 -33.3 10.0 -36.5 10.5 -43.5 11.4 -47.2 12.4 -51.0 14.3 -59.2 15.4 -63.5 16.5 -67.9 21.1 -87.2
2 20 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -21.8 10.0 -27.0 10.0 -29.7 10.0 -32.6 10.0 -38.8 10.7 -42.1 11.6 -45.6 13.4 -52.9 14.4 -56.7 15.4 -60.7 19.8 -78.0
2 50 10.0 -16.4 10.0 -18.4 10.0 -22.7 10.0 -25.1 10.0 -27.5 10.0 -32.7 10.0 -35.5 10.6 -38.4 12.3 -44.5 13.1 -47.8 14.1 -51.1 18.1 -65.7
2 100 10.0 -14.1 10.0 -15.8 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -21.5 10.0 -23.6 10.0 -28.1 10.0 -30.5 10.0 -33.0 11.4 -38.2 12.2 -41.0 13.0 -43.9 16.7 -56.4
3 10 10.0 -32.8 10.0 -36.8 10.0 -45.4 10.0 -50.1 10.0 -55.0 10.5 -65.4 11.4 -71.0 12.4 -76.8 14.3 -89.0 15.4 -95.5 16.5 -102.2 21.1 -131.3
3 20 10.0 -27.2 10.0 -30.5 10.0 -37.6 10.0 -41.5 10.0 -45.5 10.0 -54.2 10.7 -58.8 11.6 -63.6 13.4 -73.8 14.4 -79.1 15.4 -84.7 19.8 -108.7
3 50 10.0 -19.7 10.0 -22.1 10.0 -27.3 10.0 -30.1 10.0 -33.1 10.0 -39.3 10.0 -42.7 10.6 -46.2 12.3 -53.5 13.1 -57.4 14.1 -61.5 18.1 -78.9
3 100 10.0 -14.1 10.0 -15.8 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -21.5 10.0 -23.6 10.0 -28.1 10.0 -30.5 10.0 -33.0 11.4 -38.2 12.2 -41.0 13.0 -43.9 16.7 -56.4
Roof > 10 to 30 degrees 1 10 10.0 -11.9 10.0 -13.3 10.4 -16.5 11.4 -18.2 12.5 -19.9 14.9 -23.7 16.2 -25.7 17.5 -27.8 20.3 -32.3 21.8 -34.6 23.3 -37.0 30.0 -47.6
1 20 10.0 -11.6 10.0 -13.0 10.0 -16.0 10.4 -17.6 11.4 -19.4 13.6 -23.0 14.8 -25.0 16.0 -27.0 18.5 -31.4 19.9 -33.7 21.3 -36.0 27.3 -46.3
1 50 10.0 -11.1 10.0 -12.5 10.0 -15.4 10.0 -17.0 10.0 -18.6 11.9 -22.2 12.9 -24.1 13.9 -26.0 16.1 -30.2 17.3 -32.4 18.5 -34.6 23.8 -44.5
1 100 10.0 -10.8 10.0 -12.1 10.0 -14.9 10.0 -16.5 10.0 -18.1 10.5 -21.5 11.4 -23.3 12.4 -25.2 14.3 -29.3 15.4 -31.4 16.5 -33.6 21.1 -43.2
2 10 10.0 -25.1 10.0 -28.2 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.3 12.5 -42.1 14.9 -50.1 16.2 -54.3 17.5 -58.7 20.3 -68.1 21.8 -73.1 23.3 -78.2 30.0 -100.5
2 20 10.0 -22.8 10.0 -25.6 10.0 -31.5 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.2 13.6 -45.4 14.8 -49.3 16.0 -53.3 18.5 -61.8 19.9 -66.3 21.3 -71.0 27.3 -91.2
2 50 10.0 -19.7 10.0 -22.1 10.0 -27.3 10.0 -30.1 10.0 -33.0 11.9 -39.3 12.9 -42.7 13.9 -46.1 16.1 -53.5 17.3 -57.4 18.5 -61.4 23.8 -78.9
2 100 10.0 -17.4 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -24.1 10.0 -26.6 10.0 -29.1 10.5 -34.7 11.4 -37.6 12.4 -40.7 14.3 -47.2 15.4 -50.6 16.5 -54.2 21.1 -69.6
3 10 10.0 -25.1 10.0 -28.2 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.3 12.5 -42.1 14.9 -50.1 16.2 -54.3 17.5 -58.7 20.3 -68.1 21.8 -73.1 23.3 -78.2 30.0 -100.5
3 20 10.0 -22.8 10.0 -25.6 10.0 -31.5 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.2 13.6 -45.4 14.8 -49.3 16.0 -53.3 18.5 -61.8 19.9 -66.3 21.3 -71.0 27.3 -91.2
3 50 10.0 -19.7 10.0 -22.1 10.0 -27.3 10.0 -30.1 10.0 -33.0 11.9 -39.3 12.9 -42.7 13.9 -46.1 16.1 -53.5 17.3 -57.4 18.5 -61.4 23.8 -78.9
3 100 10.0 -17.4 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -24.1 10.0 -26.6 10.0 -29.1 10.5 -34.7 11.4 -37.6 12.4 -40.7 14.3 -47.2 15.4 -50.6 16.5 -54.2 21.1 -69.6
Roof > 30 to 45 degrees 1 10 11.9 -13.0 13.3 -14.6 16.5 -18.0 18.2 -19.8 19.9 -21.8 23.7 -25.9 25.7 -28.1 27.8 -30.4 32.3 -35.3 34.6 -37.8 37.0 -40.5 47.6 -52.0
1 20 11.6 -12.3 13.0 -13.8 16.0 -17.1 17.6 -18.8 19.4 -20.7 23.0 -24.6 25.0 -26.7 27.0 -28.9 31.4 -33.5 33.7 -35.9 36.0 -38.4 46.3 -49.3
1 50 11.1 -11.5 12.5 -12.8 15.4 -15.9 17.0 -17.5 18.6 -19.2 22.2 -22.8 24.1 -24.8 26.0 -25.8 30.2 -31.1 32.4 -33.3 34.6 -35.7 44.5 -45.8
1 100 10.8 -10.8 12.1 -12.1 14.9 -14.9 16.5 -16.5 18.1 -18.1 21.5 -21.5 23.3 -23.3 25.2 -25.2 29.3 -29.3 31.4 -31.4 33.6 -33.6 43.2 -43.2
2 10 11.9 -15.2 13.3 -17.0 16.5 -21.0 18.2 -23.2 19.9 -25.5 23.7 -30.3 25.7 -32.9 27.8 -35.6 32.3 -41.2 34.6 -44.2 37.0 -47.3 47.6 -60.8
2 20 11.6 -14.5 13.0 -16.3 16.0 -20.1 17.6 -22.2 19.4 -24.3 23.0 -29.0 25.0 -31.4 27.0 -34.0 31.4 -39.4 33.7 -42.3 36.0 -45.3 46.3 -58.1
2 50 11.1 -13.7 12.5 -15.3 15.4 -18.9 17.0 -20.8 18.6 -22.9 22.2 -27.2 24.1 -29.5 26.0 -32.0 30.2 -37.1 32.4 -39.8 34.6 -42.5 44.5 -54.6
2 100 10.8 -13.0 12.1 -14.6 14.9 -18.0 16.5 -19.8 18.1 -21.8 21.5 -25.9 23.3 -28.1 25.2 -30.4 29.3 -35.3 31.4 -37.8 33.6 -40.5 43.2 -52.0
3 10 11.9 -15.2 13.3 -17.0 16.5 -21.0 18.2 -23.2 19.9 -25.5 23.7 -30.3 25.7 -32.9 27.8 -35.6 32.3 -41.2 34.6 -44.2 37.0 -47.3 47.6 -60.8
3 20 11.6 -14.5 13.0 -16.3 16.0 -20.1 17.6 -22.2 19.4 -24.3 23.0 -29.0 25.0 -31.4 27.0 -34.0 31.4 -39.4 33.7 -42.3 36.0 -45.3 46.3 -58.1
3 50 11.1 -13.7 12.5 -15.3 15.4 -18.9 17.0 -20.8 18.6 -22.9 22.2 -27.2 24.1 -29.5 26.0 -32.0 30.2 -37.1 32.4 -39.8 34.6 -42.5 44.5 -54.5
3 100 10.8 -13.0 12.1 -14.6 14.9 -18.0 16.5 -19.8 18.1 -21.8 21.5 -25.9 23.3 -28.1 25.2 -30.4 -29.3 -35.3 31.4 -37.8 33.6 -40.5 43.2 -52.0
Wall 4 10 13.0 -14.1 14.6 -15.8 18.0 -19.5 19.8 -21.5 21.8 -23.6 25.9 -28.1 28.1 -30.5 30.4 -33.0 35.3 -38.2 37.8 -41.0 40.5 -43.9 52.0 -56.4
4 20 12.4 -13.5 13.9 -15.1 17.2 -18.7 18.9 -20.6 20.8 -22.6 24.7 -26.9 26.8 -29.2 29.0 -31.6 33.7 -36.7 36.1 -39.3 38.7 -42.1 49.6 -54.1
4 50 11.6 -12.7 13.0 -14.3 16.1 -17.6 17.8 -19.4 19.5 -21.3 23.2 -25.4 25.2 -27.5 27.2 -29.8 31.6 -34.6 33.9 -37.1 36.2 -39.7 46.6 -51.0
4 100 11.1 -12.2 12.4 -13.6 15.3 -16.8 16.9 -18.5 18.5 -20.4 22.0 -24.2 23.9 -26.3 25.9 -28.4 30.0 -33.0 32.2 -35.4 34.4 -37.8 44.2 -48.6
5 10 13.0 -17.4 14.6 -19.5 18.0 -24.1 19.8 -26.6 21.8 -29.1 25.9 -34.7 28.1 -37.6 30.4 -40.7 35.3 -47.2 37.8 -50.6 40.5 -54.2 52.0 -69.6
5 20 12.4 -16.2 13.9 -18.2 17.2 -22.5 18.9 -24.8 20.8 -27.2 24.7 -32.4 26.8 -35.1 29.0 -38.0 33.7 -44.0 36.1 -47.2 38.7 -50.5 49.6 -64.9
5 50 11.6 -14.7 13.0 -16.5 16.1 -20.3 17.8 -22.4 19.5 -24.6 23.2 -29.3 25.2 -31.8 27.2 -34.3 31.6 -39.8 33.9 -42.7 36.2 -45.7 46.6 -58.7
5 100 11.1 -13.5 12.4 -15.1 15.3 -18.7 16.9 -20.6 18.5 -22.6 22.0 -26.9 23.9 -29.2 25.9 -31.6 30.0 -36.7 32.2 -39.3 34.4 -42.1 44.2 -54.1
44
TABLE R301.2(3)
HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2)
MEAN ROOF HEIGHT EXPOSURE
B C D
15 1.00 1.21 1.47
20 1.00 1.29 1.55
25 1.00 1.35 1.61
30 1.00 1.40 1.66
35 1.05 1.45 1.70
40 1.09 1.49 1.74
45 1.12 1.53 1.78
50 1.16 1.56 1.81
55 1.19 1.59 1.84
60 1.22 1.62 1.87
TABLE R301.2.1.2
WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELSa, b, c, d
FASTENER TYPE FASTENER SPACING (inches)a,b
Panel span ≤ 4 feet 4 feet < panel span ≤ 6 feet 6 feet < panel span ≤ 8 feet
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. This table is based on 130 mph wind speeds and a 33-foot mean roof height.
b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel.
c. Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 2½ inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete.
d. Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate withdrawal capacity of 1,500 pounds.
No. 8 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length 16 10 8
No. 10 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length 16 12 9
¼-inch lag screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length 16 16 16
45

FIGURE R301.2(1) ISOLINES OF THE 97½ PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (°F)

FIGURE R301.2(1)
ISOLINES OF THE 97½ PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (°F)

46

FIGURE R301.2(2) SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

FIGURE R301.2(2)
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

47

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

48

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

49

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

50

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

FIGURE R301.2(2)—continued
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D

51

FIGURE R301.2(3) WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE

FIGURE R301.2(3)
WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE

52

FIGURE R301.2(4) BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

FIGURE R301.2(4)
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category.
b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.
c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.
d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.
e. Enlarged view of Eastern and Southern seaboards are on the following pages.

53

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category.

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.

e. Enlarged view of Eastern and Southern seaboards are on the following pages.

54

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN ECURRENCE INTERVAL

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category.

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.

55

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category.

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.

56

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

FIGURE R301.2(4)—continued
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category.

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.

57

FIGURE R301.2(5) GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)

FIGURE R301.2(5)
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)

58

FIGURE R301.2(5)—continued GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)

FIGURE R301.2(5)—continued
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)

59

FIGURE R301.2(6) TERMINTE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP

FIGURE R301.2(6)
TERMINTE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP

60

FIGURE R301.2(7) COMPONENTAND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES

FIGURE R301.2(7)
COMPONENTAND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES

R301.2.1.3 Wind speed conversion. When referenced documents are based on fastest mile wind speeds, the three-second gust basic wind speeds, V3s, of Figure R301.2(4) shall be converted to fastest mile wind speeds, Vfm, using Table R301.2.1.3.

R301.2.1.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction considered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the transition zone between categories, the category resulting in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features. For a site where multiple detached one- and two-family dwellings, townhouses or other structures are to be constructed as part of a subdivision, master-planned community, or otherwise designated as a developed area by the authority having jurisdiction, the exposure category for an individual structure shall be based upon the site conditions that will exist at the time when all adjacent structures on the site have been constructed, provided their construction is expected to begin within one year of the start of construction for the structure for which the exposure category is determined. For any given wind direction, the exposure in which a specific building or other structure is sited shall be assessed as being one of the following categories:

  1. Exposure A. Large city centers with at least 50 percent of the buildings having a height in excess of 70 feet (21 336 mm). Use of this exposure category 61 shall be limited to those areas for which terrain representative of Exposure A prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 0.5 mile (0.8 km) or 10 times the height of the building or other structure, whichever is greater. Possible channeling effects or increased velocity pressures due to the building or structure being located in the wake of adjacent buildings shall be taken into account.
  2. Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be assumed unless the site meets the definition of another type exposure.
  3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions, including surface undulations or other irregularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 m) from the building site in any quadrant. This exposure shall also apply to any building located within Exposure B type terrain where the building is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat open country, grasslands and shorelines in hurricane prone regions.
  4. Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over open water (excluding shorelines in hurricane prone regions) for a distance of at least 1 mile (1.61 km). Shorelines in Exposure D include inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and coastal areas of California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. This exposure shall apply only to those buildings and other structures exposed to the wind coming from over the water. Exposure D extends inland from the shoreline a distance of 1500 feet (457 m) or 10 times the height of the building or structure, whichever is greater.

R301.2.1.5 Topographic wind effects. In areas designated in Table R301.2(1) as having local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings caused by wind speed-up at isolated hills, ridges and escarpments that are abrupt changes from the general topography of the area, topographic wind effects shall be considered in the design of the building in accordance with Section R301.2.1.5.1 or in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(1) for topographic features for wind speed-up effect.

In these designated areas, topographic wind effects shall apply only to buildings sited on the top half of an isolated hill, ridge or escarpment where all of the following conditions exist:

  1. The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment is 10 percent or greater.
  2. The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet (9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for Exposure D.
  3. The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unobstructed by other topographic features of similar height in the upwind direction for a distance measured from its high point of 100 times its height or 2 miles, whichever is less. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(3) for upwind obstruction.
  4. The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a factor of two or more above the height of other upwind topographic features located in any quadrant within a radius of 2 miles measured from its high point.

R301.2.1.5.1 Simplified topographic wind speed-up method. As an alternative to the ASCE 7 topographic wind provisions, the provisions of Section R301.2.1.5.1 shall be permitted to be used to design for wind speed-up effects, where required by Section R301.2.1.5.

Structures located on the top half of isolated hills, ridges or escarpments meeting the conditions of Section R301.2.1.5 shall be designed for an increased basic wind speed as determined by Table R301.2.1.5.1. On the high side of an escarpment, the increased basic wind speed shall extend horizontally downwind from the edge of the escarpment 1.5 times the horizontal length of the upwind slope (1.5L) or 6 times the height of the escarpment (6H), whichever is greater. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(2) for where wind speed increase is applied.

R301.2.2 Seismic provisions. The seismic provisions of this code shall apply to buildings constructed in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2, as determined in accordance with this section.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings located in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the seismic requirements of this code.

TABLE R301.2.1.3
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDSa
For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Linear interpolation is permitted.
3-second gust, V3s 85 90 100 105 110 120 125 130 140 145 150 160 170
Fastest mile, Vfm 71 76 85 90 95 104 109 114 123 128 133 142 152
62
TABLE R301.2.1.5.1
BASIC WIND MODIFICATION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC WIND EFFECT
BASIC WIND SPEED FROM FIGURE R301.2(4) (mph) AVERAGE SLOPE OF THE TOP HALF OF HILL, RIDGE OR ESCARPMENT (percent)
0.10 0.125 0.15 0.175 0.20 0.23 0.25 or greater
Required basic wind speed-up, modified for topographic wind speed up (mph)
For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
85 100 100 100 110 110 110 120
90 100 100 110 110 120 120 120
100 110 120 120 130 130 130 140
110 120 130 130 140 140 150 150
120 140 140 150 150 N/A N/A N/A
130 150 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(1) TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(1)
TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(2) ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(2)
ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

63

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(3) ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(3)
ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

R301.2.2.1 Determination of seismic design category. Buildings shall be assigned a seismic design category in accordance with Figure R301.2(2).

R301.2.2.1.1 Alternate determination of seismic design category. The Seismic Design Categories and corresponding Short Period Design Spectral Response Accelerations, SDS shown in Figure R301.2(2) are based on soil Site Class D, as defined in Section 1613.5.2 of the California Building Code. If soil conditions are other than Site Class D, the Short Period Design Spectral Response Accelerations, SDS, for a site can be determined according to Section 1613.5 of the California Building Code. The value of SDS determined according to Section 1613.5 of the California Building Code is permitted to be used to set the seismic design category according to Table R301.2.2.1.1, and to interpolate between values in Tables R602.10.1, R603.7 and other seismic design requirements of this code.

TABLE R301.2.2.1.1
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION
CALCULATED SDS SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
SDS≤0.17g A
0.17g<SDS≤0.33g B
0.33g<SDS≤0.50g C
0.50g<SDS≤0.67g D0
0.67g<SDS≤0.83g D1
0.83g<SDS≤1.17g D2
1.17g<SDS E

R301.2.2.1.2 Alternative determination of Seismic Design Category E. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E in accordance with Figure R301.2(2) are permitted to be reclassified as being in Seismic Design Category D2 provided one of the following is done:

  1. A more detailed evaluation of the seismic design category is made in accordance with the provisions and maps of the California Building Code. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E per Table R301.2.2.1.1, but located in Seismic Design Category D per the California Building Code, may be designed using the Seismic Design Category D2 requirements of this code.
  2. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E that conform to the following additional restrictions are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions for Seismic Design Category D2 of this code:
    1. All exterior shear wall lines or braced wall panels are in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story.
    2. Floors shall not cantilever past the exterior walls.
    3. The building is within all of the requirements of Section R301.2.2.2.5 for being considered as regular.

R301.2.2.2 Seismic Design Category C. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall conform to the requirements of this section.

R301.2.2.2.1 Weights of materials. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for the combined roof and ceiling assemblies (on a horizontal projection) or 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for floor assemblies, except as further limited by Section R301.2.2. Dead loads for walls above grade shall not exceed:

  1. Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for exterior light-frame wood walls. 64
  2. Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
  3. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior light-frame wood walls.
  4. Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for interior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
  5. Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls.
  6. Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls.
  7. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP walls.

    Exceptions:

    1. Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 25 pounds per square foot (1190 Pa) shall be permitted provided the wall bracing amounts in Chapter 6 are increased in accordance with Table R301.2.2.2.1.
    2. Light-frame walls with stone or masonry veneer shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Sections R702.1 and R703.
    3. Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 10.
TABLE R301.2.2.2.1
WALL BRACING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BY ROOF COVERING DEAD LOADa
WALL SUPPORTING ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
15 psf or less 25 psf
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
Roof only 1.0 1.2
Roof plus one or two stories 1.0 1.1

R301.2.2.2.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703.

R301.2.2.2.3 Masonry construction. Masonry construction shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.11.2.

R301.2.2.2.4 Concrete construction. Detached one- and two-family dwellings with exterior above-grade concrete walls shall comply with the requirements of Section R611, PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. Townhouses with above-grade exterior concrete walls shall comply with the requirements of PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

R301.2.2.2.5 Irregular buildings. Prescriptive construction as regulated by this code shall not be used for irregular structures located in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2. Irregular portions of structures shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to the extent the irregular features affect the performance of the remaining structural system. When the forces associated with the irregularity are resisted by a structural system designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice, design of the remainder of the building shall be permitted using the provisions of this code. A building or portion of a building shall be considered to be irregular when one or more of the following conditions occur:

  1. When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall panels are not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they are required.

    Exception: For wood light-frame construction, floors with cantilevers or setbacks not exceeding four times the nominal depth of the wood floor joists are permitted to support braced wall panels that are out of plane with braced wall panels below provided that:

    1. Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.
    2. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is at least 2 to 1.
    3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panelsare doubled.
    4. For wood-frame construction, a continuous rim joist is connected to ends of all cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim joists shall be spliced using a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.5 mm) (16 gage) and 1½ inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d nails on each side of the splice or a block of the same size as the rim joist of sufficient length to fit securely between the joist space at which the splice occurs fastened with eight 16d nails on each side of the splice; and
    5. Gravity loads carried at the end of cantilevered joists are limited to uniform wall and roof loads and the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or less.
  2. When a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear walls or braced wall lines on all edges.

    Exception: Portions of floors that do not support shear walls or braced wall panels above, or roofs, shall be permitted to extend no more than 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a shear wall or braced wall line.

  3. When the end of a braced wall panel occurs over an opening in the wall below and ends at a horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 mm) from the edge of the opening. This provision 65 is applicable to shear walls and braced wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as permitted by the exception to Item 1 above.

    Exception: For wood light-frame wall construction, one end of a braced wall panel shall be permitted to extend more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide in the wall below provided that the opening includes a header in accordance with the following:

    1. The building width, loading condition and framing member species limitations of Table R502.5(1) shall apply; and
    2. Not less than one 2x12 or two 2x10 for an opening not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide; or
    3. Not less than two 2x12 or three 2x10 for an opening not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) wide; or
    4. Not less than three 2x12 or four 2x10 for an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide; and
    5. The entire length of the braced wall panel does not occur over an opening in the wall below.
  4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 12 feet (3658 mm) or 50 percent of the least floor or roof dimension.
  5. When portions of a floor level are vertically offset.

    Exceptions:

    1. Framing supported directly by continuous foundations at the perimeter of the building.
    2. For wood light-frame construction, floors shall be permitted to be vertically offset when the floor framing is lapped or tied together as required by Section R502.6.1.
  6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not occur in two perpendicular directions.
  7. When stories above-grade partially or completely braced by wood wall framing in accordance with Section R602 or steel wall framing in accordance with Section R603 include mansonry or concrete construction.

    Exception: Fireplaces, chimneys and masonry vencer as permitted by this code. When this irregularity applies, the entire story shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R301.2.2.3 Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2 shall conform to the requirements for Seismic Design Category C and the additional requirements of this section.

R301.2.2.3.1 Height limitations. Wood framed buildings shall be limited to three stories above grade or the limits given in Table R602.10.1.2(2). Cold-formed steel framed buildings shall be limited to less than or equal to three stories above grade in accordance with AISI S230. Mezzanines as defined in Section R202 shall not be considered as stories. Structural insulated panel buildings shall be limited to two stories above grade.

R301.2.2.3.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703.

R301.2.2.3.3 Masonry construction. Masonry construction in Seismic Design Categories D0 and D1 shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.11.3. Masonry construction in Seismic Design Category D2 shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.11.4.

R301.2.2.3.4 Concrete construction. Buildings with exterior above-grade concrete walls shall comply with PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

R301.2.2.3.5 Cold-formed steel framing in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 in addition to the requirements of this code, cold-formed steel framing shall comply with the requirements of AISI S230.

R301.2.2.3.6 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be reinforced and anchored to the building in accordance with Sections R1003.3 and R1003.4.

R301.2.2.3.7 Anchorage of water heaters. Water heaters shall be anchored against movement and over-turning in accordance with the California Plumbing Code.

R301.2.2.4 Seismic Design Category E. Buildings in Seismic Design Category E shall be designed in accordance with the California Building Code, except when the seismic design category in accordance with Section R301.2.2.1.

R301.2.3 Snow loads. Wood framed construction, cold-formed steel framed construction and masonry and concrete construction, and structural insulated panel construction in regions with ground snow loads 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa) or less, shall be in accordance with Chapters 5, 6 and 8. Buildings in regions with ground snow loads greater than 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa) shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R301.2.4 Floodplain construction. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) as established in Table R301.2.(1)

66

shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R322.

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or in part in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.

R301.2.4.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and structures located in whole or in part in coastal high hazard areas (V Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein.

R301.3 Story height. Buildings constructed in accordance with these provisions shall be limited to story heights of not more than the following:

  1. For wood wall framing, the laterally unsupported bearing wall stud height permitted by Table R602.3(5) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

    Exception: For wood framed wall buildings with bracing in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), the wall stud clear height used to determine the maximum permitted story height may be increased to 12 feet (3658 mm) without requiring an engineered design for the building wind and seismic force resisting systems provided that the length of bracing required by Table R602.10.1.2(1) is increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.10 and the length of bracing required by Table R602.10.1.2(2) is increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.20. Wall studs are still subject to the requirements of this section.

  2. For steel wall framing, a stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm), plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
  3. For masonry walls, a maximum bearing wall clear height of 12 feet (3658 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

    Exception: An additional 8 feet (2438 mm) is permitted for gable end walls.

  4. For insulating concrete from walls, the maximum bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section R611 tables plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
  5. For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the maximum bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section 614 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

Individual walls or walls studs shall be permitted to exceed these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, provided story heights are not exceeded. Floor framing height shall be permitted to exceed these limits provided the story height does not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm). An engineered design shall be provided for the wall or wall framing members when they exceed the limits of Chapter 6. Where the story height limits are exceeded, an engineered design shall be provided in accordance with the California Building Code for the overall wind and seismic force resisting systems.

R301.4 Dead load. The actual weights of materials and construction shall be used for determining dead load with consideration for the dead load of fixed service equipment.

R301.5 Live load The minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be as provided in Table R301.5.

TABLE R301.5
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS (in pounds per square foot)
USE LIVE LOAD
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kpa, 1 square inch = 645 mm², 1 pound=4.45 N.
a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load applied over a 20-square-inch area.
b. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between joist and after is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide, or greater, located within the plane of the truss. For attics without storage, this live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.
c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses.
d. A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top.
e. See Section R502.2.2 for decks attached to exterior walls.
f. Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirement.
g. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, This live load need be applied only to those portions of the bottom chord where there are two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high or greater by 2 feet wide or greater, located within the plane of the truss.The rectangles shall fit between the top of the bottom chord and the bottom of any truss member, provided that each of the following criteria is met.
1. The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed in accordance with Section R807.1.
2. The truss has a bottom chord pitch less than 2:12.
3. Required instulation depth is less than the bottom chord member depth.
The bottom chords of trusses meeting the above criteria for limited storage shall be designed for the greater of the actual imposed dead load or 10 psf, uniformly distributed over the entire span.
h. Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the concentrated loads applied to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in-fill components. These loads shall be determined independent of one another, and loads are assumed not to occur with any other live load.
Attics without storageb 10
Attics with limited storageb,g 20
Habitable attics and attics served
with fixed stairs
30
Balconies (exterior) and deckse 40
Fire escapes 40
Guardrails and handrailsd 200h
Guardrail in-fill componentsf 50h
Passenger vehicle garagesa 50a
Rooms other than sleeping room 40
Sleeping rooms 30
Stairs 40c
67

R301.6 Roof load. The roof shall be designed for the live load indicated in Table R301.6 or the snow load indicated in Table R301.2(1), whichever is greater.

TABLE R301.6
MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE PER SQUARE FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION
ROOF SLOPE TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN SQUARE FEET FOR ANY STRUCTURAL MEMBER
0 to 200 201 to 600 Over 600
For SI: 1 square foot=0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot=0.0479 kPa, 1 inch per foot=83.3 mm/m.
Flat or rise less than 4 inches per
foot (1:3)
20 16 12
Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to
less than 12 inches per foot (1:1)
16 14 12
Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1)
and greater
12 12 12

R301.7 Deflection. The allowable deflection of any structural member under the live load listed in Sections R301.5 and R301.6 shall not exceed the values in Table R301.7.

TABLE R301.7
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERSa, b, c, d, e
STRUCTURAL MEMBER ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION
Note: L=span length, H=span height.
a. The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the Component and Cladding loads for the purpose of the determining deflection limits herein.
b. For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.
c. For aluminum structural members or panel used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/60. For continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/175 for each glass lite or L/60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/120.
d. Deflection for exterior walls with interior gypsum board finish shall be limited to an allowable deflection of H/180.
e. Refer to Section R703.7.2.
Rafters having slopes greater than 3:12 with no finished ceiling attached to rafters L/180
Interior walls and partitions H/180
Floors and plastered ceilings L/360
All other structural members L/240
Exterior walls with plaster or stucco finish H/360
Exterior walls—wind loadsa with brittle finishes H/240
Exterior walls—wind loadsa with flexible
finishes
L/120d
Lintels supporting masonry veneer wallse L/600

R301.8 Nominal sizes. For the purposes of this code, where dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual dimensions.

SECTION R302
FIRE-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

R302.1 Exterior walls. Construction, projections, openings and penetrations of exterior walls of dwellings and accessory buildings shall comply with Table R302.1(1); or for dwellings and accessory buildings equipped throughout with an automatic residential fire sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section R313 shall comply with Table R302.1(2).

Exceptions:

  1. Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separation distance.
  2. Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located on the same lot.
  3. Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses and similar structures exempted from permits are not required to provide wall protection based on location on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend over the lot line.
  4. Detached garages accessory to a dwelling located within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).
  5. Foundation vents installed in compliance with this code are permitted.

R302.2 Townhouses. Each townhouse shall be considered a separate building and shall be separated by fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies meeting the requirements of Section R302.1 for exterior walls.

Exception: A common 1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall assembly tested in accordance with ASTME 119 or UL 263 is permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or rated for fire exposure from both sides and shall extend to and be tight against exterior walls and the underside of the roof sheathing. Electrical installations shall be installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code. Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with Section R302.4.

R302.2.1 Continuity. The fire-resistance-rated wall or assembly separating townhouses shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab. The fire-resistance rating shall extend the full length of the wall or assembly, including wall extensions through and separating attached enclosed accessory structures.

R302.2.2 Parapets. Parapets constructed in accordance with Section R302.2.3 shall be constructed for townhouses as an extension of exterior walls or common walls in accordance with the following:

  1. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces.
  2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the 68 parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof surface.

    Exception: A parapet is not required in the two cases above when the roof is covered with a minimum class C roof covering, and the roof decking or sheathing is of noncombustible materials or approved fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls, or one layer of 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof decking or sheathing, supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members, for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls.

  3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof. The common wall construction from the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof deck shall have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. The wall shall be rated for explosure from both sides.

R302.2.3 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof surface, the parapet shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing and coping materials. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes greater than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof with in a distance of 3 feet (914 mm), but in no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm).

R302.2.4 Structural independence. Each individual townhouse shall be structurally independent.

Exceptions:

  1. Foundations supporting exterior walls or common walls.
  2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit may fasten to the common wall framing.
  3. Nonstructural wall and roof coverings.
  4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over common wall.
  5. Townhouses separated by a common 1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall as provided in Section R302.2.

R302.3 Two-family dwellings. Dwelling units in two-family dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or floor assemblies having not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating when tested in accordance with ASTME 119 or UL 263. Fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing.

Exceptions:

  1. A fire-resistance rating of ½ hour shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
  2. Wall assemblies need not extend through attic spaces when the ceiling is protected by not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board and an attic draft stop constructed as specified in Section R302.12.1 is provided above and along the wall assembly separating the dwellings. The structural framing supporting the ceiling shall also be protected by not less than ½-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent.

R302.3.1 Supporting construction. When floor assemblies are required to be fire-resistance rated by Section R302.3, the supporting construction of such assemblies shall have an equal or greater fire-resistance rating.

R302.4 Dwelling unit rated penetrations. Penetrations of wall of floor/ceiling assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section R302.2 or R302.3 shall be protected in accordance with this section.

TABLE R302.1(1)
EXTERIOR WALLS-DWELLINGS AND ACCESSORY BUILDINGS WITHOUT AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL FIRE SPRINKLER PROTECTION
EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT MINIMUM FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING MINIMUM FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
N/A=Not Applicable.
Walls (Fire-resistance rated) 1 hour-tested in accordance with ASTME 119 or UL 263 with exposure from both sides < 5 feet
(Not fire-resistance rated) 0 hours ≥ 5 feet
Projections (Fire-resistance rated) 1 hour on the underside ≥ 2 feet to 5 feet
(Not fire-resistance rated) 0 hours 5 feet
Openings in walls Not allowed N/A < 3 feet
25% maximum of wall area 0 hours 3 feet
Unlimited 0 hours 5 feet
Penetrations All Comply with Section R302.4 < 5 feet
None required 5 feet
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TABLE R302.1(2)
EXTERIOR WALLS-DWELLINGS AND ACCESSORY BUILDINGS WITH AUTOMATIC RESIDENTIAL FIRE SPRINKLER PROTECTION
EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT MINIMUM FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING MINIMUM FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
N/A=Not Applicable.
Walls (Fire-resistance rated) 1 hour-tested in accordance with ASTME 119 or UL 263 with exposure from both sides <3 feet
(Not fire-resistance rated) 0 hours >3 feet
Projections (Fire-resistance rated) 1 hour on the underside ≥2 feet to 3 feet
(Not fire-resistance rated) 0 hours 3 feet
Openings in walls Not allowed N/A < 3 feet
Unlimited 0 hours 3 feet
Penetrations All Comply with Section R302.4 < 3 feet
None required 3 feet

R302.4.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply with Section R302.4.1.1 or R302.4.1.2.

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space shall be protected as follows:

  1. In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies, concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where installed to the full thickness of the wall or floor assembly or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating, provided:
    1. The nominal diameter of the penetrating item is a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm); and
    2. The area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm 2)
  2. The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTME 119 or UL 263 time temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the construction penetrated.

R302.4.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assembly. Penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire-resistance-rated assembly.

R302.4.1.2 Penetration fire stop system. Penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floor/ceiling assembly penetrated.

R302.4.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations shall comply with Section R302.4.1. Where walls are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed so that the required fire-resistance rating will not be reduced.

Exceptions:

  1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (0.0103 m2) in area provided the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:
    1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities;
    2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity when the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation;
    3. By solid fire blocking in accordance with Section R302.11;
    4. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or
    5. By other listed other materials and methods.
  2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any materials provided the boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:
    1. By the horizontal distance specified in the listing of the electrical boxes; 70
    2. By solid fire blocking in accordance with Section R302.11;
    3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or
    4. By other listed materials and methods.
  3. The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.

R302.5 Dwelling/garage opening/penetration protection.Openings and penetrations through the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling from the garage shall be in accordance with Sections R302.5.1 through R302.5.3.

R302.5.1 Openings protection.Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Other openings between the garage and residence shall be equipped with solid wood doors not less than 1 3⁄8 inches (35 mm) in thickness, solid or honey comb core steel doors not less than 13⁄8; inches (35 mm) thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors. Doors shall be self-closing and self -latching.

Exception: Where the residence and the private garage are protected by an automatic residential fire sprinkler system in accordance with Sections R309.6 and R313, other door openings between the private garage and the residence need only be self-closing and self-latching. This exception shall not apply to rooms used for sleeping purposes.

R302.5.2 Duct penetration. Ducts in the garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum No. 26 gage (0.48 mm) sheet steel or other approved material and shall have no openings into the garage.

R302.5.3 Other penetrations. Penetrations through the separation required in Section R309.2 shall be protected as required by Section R302.1.1, Item 4.

R302.6 Dwelling garage and or carport fire separation.The garage and/or carport shall be separated as required by Table R302.6. Openings in garage walls shall comply with Section R302.5. This provision does not apply to garage walls that are perpendicular to the adjacent dwelling unit wall. A separation is not required between the dwelling unit and a carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.

R302.7 Under-stair protection. Enclosed accessible space under stairs shall have walls, under-stair surface and any soffits protected on the enclosed side with ½-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.

R302.8 Foam plastics. For requirements for foam plastics see Section R316.

R302.9 Flame spread index and smoke-developed index for wall and ceiling finishes. Flame spread and smoke index for wall and ceiling finishes shall be in accordance with Sections R302.9.1 through R302.9.4.

R302.9.1 Flame spread index. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a flame spread index of not greater than 200.

Exception: Flame spread index requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim defined as picture molds, chair rails, baseboards and handrails; to doors and windows or their frames; or to materials that are less than 1⁄28 inch (0.91 mm) in thickness cemented to the surface of walls or ceilings if these materials exhibit flame spread index values no greater than those of paper of this thickness cemented to a noncombustible backing.

R302.9.2 Smoke-developed index. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a smoke-developed index of not greater than 450.

R302.9.3 Testing. Tests shall be made in accordance with ASTME 84 or UL 723.

R302.9.4 Alternate test method. As an alternate to having a flame-spread index of not greater than 200 and a smoke developed index of not greater than 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, wall and ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall meet the following criteria:

During the 40 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior finish shall comply with Items 3 and 4 .

  1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.
TABLE R302.6
DWELLING/GARAGE AND/OR CARPORT SEPARATION
SEPARATION MATERIAL
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
From the residence and attics Not less than½-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the garage side
From all habitable rooms above the garage or carport Not less than 5⁄8-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent
Structure(s) supporting floor/ceiling assemblies used for separation required by this section Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent
Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the interior side of exterior walls that are within this area
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  1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with the following:
    1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.
    2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.
  2. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.
  3. The peak rate of heat release throughout the NFPA 286 test shall not exceed 800 kW.

R302.9.5 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that such materials will not readily become detached where subjected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 30 minutes.

R302.10 Flame spread index and smoke developed index for insulation. Flame spread and smoke developed index for insulation shall be in accordance with Sections R302.10.1 through R302.10.5.

R302.10.1 Insulation. Insulation materials, including facings, such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed index not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

Exceptions:

  1. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-developed index limitations do not apply to the facings, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
  2. Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray applied, complying with the requirements of Section R302.10.3, shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

R302.10.2 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Section R302.10.1 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2, provided such insulation complies with the requirements of Section R302.10.1 and Section R302.10.3.

R302.10.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404. Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404.

R302.10.4 Exposed attic insulation. All exposed insulation materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter.

R302.10.5 Testing. Tests for critical radiant flux shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 970.

R302.11 Fire blocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking shall be provided to cut off all concealed draft openings (both vertical and horizontal) and to form an effective fire barrier between stories, and between a top story and the roof space.

Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-frame construction in the following locations:

  1. In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or staggered studs, as follows:
    1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.
    2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).
  2. At all interconnections between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings and cove ceilings.
  3. In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall comply with Section R302.7.
  4. At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion. The material filling this annular space shall not be required to meet the ASTM E 136 requirements.
  5. For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Section R1003.19.
  6. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is required at the line of dwelling unit separation.

R302.11.1 Fireblocking materials. Except as provided in Section R302.11, Item 4, fireblocking shall consist of the following materials.

  1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber.
  2. Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.
  3. One thickness of 23⁄32- inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 23⁄32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels.
  4. One thickness of ¾-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by ¾-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard.
  5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
  6. One-quarter-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.
  7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.

R302.11.1.1 Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs.

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R302.11.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insulation shall be packed tightly around the obstruction.

R302.11.1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases.

R302.11.2 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of all fireblocks shall be maintained.

R302.12 Draftstopping. In combustible construction where there is usable space both above and below the concealed space of a floor/ceiling assembly, draftstops shall be installed so that the area of the concealed space does not exceed 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2). Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space into approximately equal areas. Where the assembly is enclosed by a floor membrane above and a ceiling membrane below, draftstopping shall be provided in floor/ceiling assemblies under the following circumstances:

  1. Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing.
  2. Floor framing is constructed of trus-type open-web or perforated members.

R302.12.1 Materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be less than ½-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3⁄8-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panels or other approved materials adequately supported. Draftopping shall be installed parallel to the floor framing members unless otherwise approved by the building official. The integrity of the draftstops shall be maintained.

R302.13 Combustible insulation clearance. Combustible insulation shall be separated a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) from recessed luminaires, fan motors and other heat-producing devices.

Exception: Where heat-producing devices are listed for lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance with the conditions stipulated in the listing.

Recessed luminaires installed in the building envelope shall meet or exceed the requirements specified in the California Energy Code for recessed luminaires installed in insulated ceilings.

SECTION R303
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND HEATING

R303.1 Habitable rooms. All habitable rooms shall have an aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of such rooms . Natural ventilation shall be through windows, doors, louvers or other approved openings to the outdoor air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access or shall other wise be readily controllable by the building occupants. The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated.

Exceptions:

  1. The glazed areas need not be openable where the opening is not required by Section R310 and an approved mechanical ventilation system capable of producing 0.35 air change per hour in the room is installed or a whole-house mechanical ventilation system is installed capable of supplying outdoor ventilation air of 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (78 L/s) per occupant computed on the basis of two occupants for the first bedroom and one occupant for each additional bedroom.
  2. The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial light is provided capable of producing an average illumination of 6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.
  3. Use of sunroom additions and patio covers, as defined in Section R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening.
  4. The windows, doors, louvers and other approved closeable openings not required by Section R310 may open into a passive solar energy collector for ventilation required by this section. The area of ventilation openings to the outside of the passive solar energy collector shall be increased to compensate for the openings required by the interior space.
  5. Glazed openings may open into a passive solar energy collector provided the area of exterior glazed opening(s) into the passive solar energy collector is increased to compensate for the area required by the interior space.

R303.2 Adjoining rooms. For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m2).

Exception: Openings required for light and/or ventilation shall be permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom addition or patio cover, provided that there is an openable area between the adjoining room and the sunroom addition or patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 20 square feet (2 m2). The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based upon the total floor area being ventilated.

R303.3 Bathrooms. Bathrooms, water closet compartments and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate glazing area in windows of not less than 3 square feet (0.3 m2), one-half of which must be openable.

Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where artificial light and a mechanical ventilation system are provided. The minimum ventilation rates shall be 50 cubic feet per minute (24 L/s) for intermittent ventilation or 25 cubic feet per minute (12 L/s) for continuous ventilation. Ventilation air from the space shall be exhausted directly to the outside.

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R303.4 Opening location. Outdoor intake and exhaust openings shall be located in accordance with Sections R303.4.1 and R303.4.2.

R303.4.1 Intake openings. Mechanical and gravity outdoor air intake openings shall be located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contaminant, such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, alleys, parking lots and loading docks, except as otherwise specified in this code. Where a source of a contaminant is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an intake opening, such opening shall be located a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) below the contaminant source.

For the purpose of this section, the exhaust from dwelling unit toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchens shall not be considered as hazardous or noxious.

R303.4.2 Exhaust openings. Exhaust air shall not be directed onto walkways.

R303.5 Outside opening protection. Air exhaust and intake openings that terminate outdoors shall be protected with corrosion-resistant screens, louvers or grilles having a minimum opening size of ¼inch (6 mm) and a maximum opening size of ½ inch (13 mm), in any dimension. Openings shall be protected against local weather conditions. Outdoor air exhaust and intake openings shall meet the provisions for exterior wall opening protectives in accordance with this code.

R303.6 Stairway illumination. All interior and exterior stairways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, including the landings and treads. Interior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of each landing of the stairway. For interior stairs the artificial light sources shall be capable of illuminating treads and landings to levels not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) measured at the center of treads and landings. Exterior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairway. Exterior stairways providing access to a basement from the outside grade level shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the bottom landing of the stairway.

Exception: An artificial light source is not required at the top and bottom landing, provided an artificial light source is located directly over each stairway section.

R303.6.1 Light activation. Where lighting outlets are installed in interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at each floor level to control the lighting outlet where the stairway has six or more risers. The illumination of exterior stairways shall be controlled from inside the dwelling unit.

Exception: Lights that are continuously illuminated or automatically controlled.

R303.7 Required glazed openings. Required glazed openings shall open directly onto a street or public alley, or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building.

Exceptions:

  1. Required glazed openings may face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yard or court and the longer side of the porch is at least 65 percent unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
  2. Eave projections shall not be considered as obstructing the clear open space of a yard or court.
  3. Required glazed openings may face into the area under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever provided a clear vertical space at least 36 inches (914 mm) in height is provided.
  4. Glazed openings covered by a passive solar energy collector in accordance with Section R303.1, Exception 5.

R303.7.1 Sunroom additions. Required glazed openings shall be permitted to open into sunroom additions or patio covers that abut a street, yard or court if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening, and the ceiling height of the sunroom is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

R303.7.1.1 Passive solar energy collectors. When a passive solar energy collector is designed as a conditioned area it shall comply with the California Energy Code, Title 24, Part 6. Nonconditioned passive solar energy collectors are exempt from Title 24, Part 6.

R303.8 Required heating. When the winter design temperature in Table R301.2(1) is below 60°F (16°C), every dwelling unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a minimum room temperature of 68°F (20°C) at a point 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor and 2 feet (610 mm) from exterior walls in all habitable rooms at the design temperature. The installation of one or more portable space heaters shall not be used to achieve compliance with this section.

Note: See Section R301.1.1.1 for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings.

SECTION R304
MINIMUM ROOM AREAS

R304.1 Minimum area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least one habitable room that shall have not less than 120 square feet (11 m2) of gross floor area.

R304.2 Other rooms. Other habitable rooms shall have a floor area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2).

Exception: Kitchens.

R304.3 Minimum dimensions. Habitable rooms shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension.

Exceptions:

  1. Kitchens.
  2. Limited-density owner-built rural dwellings. See Section R301.1.1.1.

R304.4 Height effect on room area. Portions of a room with a sloping ceiling measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) or a furred ceiling measuring less than 7 feet (2134 mm) from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as contributing to the minimum required habitable area for that room.

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SECTION R305
CEILING HEIGHT

R305.1 Minimum height. Habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and portions of basements containing these spaces shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. For rooms with sloped ceilings, at least 50 percent of the required floor area of the room must have a ceiling height of at least 7 feet (2134 mm) and no portion of the required floor area may have a ceiling height of less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
  2. Bathrooms shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) at the center of the front clearance area for fixtures as shown in Figure R307.1. The ceiling height above fixtures shall be such that the fixture is capable of being used for its intended purpose. A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above a minimum area 30 inches (762 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead.

R305.1.1 Basements. Portions of basements that do not contain habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm).

Exception:Beams, girders, ducts or other obstructions may project to within 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) of the finished floor.

SECTION R306
SANITATION

R306.1 Toilet facilities. Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a water closet, lavatory, and a bathtub or shower.

R306.2 Kitchen. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a sink.

R306.3 Sewage disposal. All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to a sanitary sewer or to an approved private sewage disposal system.

R306.4 Water supply to fixtures. All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to an approved water supply. Kitchen sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing machine outlets shall be provided with hot and cold water.

SECTION R307
TOILET, BATH AND SHOWER SPACES

R307.1 Space required. Fixtures shall be spaced in accordance with the California Plumbing Code.

R307.2 Bathtub and shower spaces. Bathtub and shower floors and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be finished with a nonabsorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a height of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.

SECTION R308
GLAZING

R308.1 Identification. Except as indicated in Section R308.1.1 each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations as defined in Section R308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer’s designation specifying who applied the designation, designating the type of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, which is visible in the final installation. The designation shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, embossed, or be of a type which once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed. A label shall be permitted in lieu of the manufacturer’s designation.

Exceptions:

  1. For other than tempered glass, manufactuer’s designations are not required provided the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.
  2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.

R308.1.1 Identification of multiple assemblies. Multipane assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 1 square foot (0.09 m2) in exposed area shall have at least one pane in the assembly identified in accordance with Section R308.1. All other panes in the assembly shall be labeled “CPSC 16 CFR 1201” or “ANSI Z97.1” as appropriate.

R308.2 Louvered windows or jalousies. Regular, float, wired or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be no thinner than nominal 3⁄16 inch (5 mm) and no longer than 48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.

R308.2.1 Wired glass prohibited.Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalousies or louvered windows.

R308.3 Human impact loads. Individual glazed areas, including glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated as defined in Section R308.4, shall pass the test requirements of Section R308.3.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with Section R308.2.
  2. Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a surface that provides a continuous backing support.
  3. Glass unit masonry complying with Section R610.

R308.3.1 Impact test. Where required by other sections of the code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category I or II as indicated in Table R308.3.1(1).

Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance

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with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A or B as indicated in Table R308.3.1 (2).

R308.4 Hazardous locations. The following shall be considered specific hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing:

  1. Glazing in all fixed and operable panels of swinging, sliding and bifold doors.

    Exceptions:

    1. Glazed openings of a size through which a 3-inch diameter (76 mm) sphere is unable to pass.
    2. Decorative glazing.
  2. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 24-inch (610 mm) are of the door in a closed position and whose bottom edge is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the floor or walking surface.

    Exceptions:

    1. Decorative glazing.
    2. When there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and the glazing.
    3. Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position.
    4. Glazing adjacent to a door where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth.
    5. Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of patio doors.
  3. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions:
    1. The exposed area of an individual pane is larger than 9 square feet (0.836 m2); and
    2. The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor; and
    3. The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor; and
    4. One or more walking surfaces are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the glazing.

      Exceptions:

      1. Decorative glazing.
      2. When a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of with-standing a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 1½ inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.
      3. Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other multiple glazed panels when the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surfaces or other horizontal [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of horizontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior.
  4. All glazing in railings regardless of area or height above a walking surface. Included are structural baluster panels and nonstructural infill panels.
  5. Glazing in enclosures for or walls facing hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers where
TABLE R308.3.1.(1)
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201
EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE GLAZING IN STORM OR COMBINATION DOORS (Category Class) GLAZING IN DOORS (Category Class) GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 7 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 6 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) GLAZING IN DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY ITEM 5 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) SLIDING GLASS DOORS PATIO TYPE (Category Class)
For SI:1 square foot=0.0929m2
NR means “No Requirement”
9 square feet or less I I NR I II II
More than 9 square feet II II II II II II
TABLE R308.3.1(2)
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI 297.1
EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 7 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 6 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY ITEM 5 OF SECTION R308.4a (Category Class)
For SI: 1 Square foot = 0.0929 m2
a. Use is permitted only by the exception to Section R308.3.1.
9 square feet or less No requirement B A
More than 9 square feet A A A
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  1. the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface.

    Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the waters edge of a hot tub, whirlpool or bathtub.

  2. Glazing in walls and fences adjacent to indoor and outdoor swimming pools, hot tubs and spas where the bottom edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above a walking surface and within 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the water’s edge. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.
  3. Glazing adjacent to stairways, landings and ramps within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally of a walking surface when the exposed surface of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface.

    Exceptions:

    1. When a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of with standing a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 1½ inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.
    2. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or hand-rail, including balusters or in-fill panels, complying with Sections R311.7.6 and R312 and the plane of the glazing is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing; or
    3. When a solid wall or panel extends from the plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 inches (863 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above the walking surface and the construction at the top of that wall or panel is capable of withstanding the same horizontal load as a guard.
  4. Glazing adjacent to stairways within 60 inches (1524 mm) horizontally of the bottom tread of a stairway in any direction when the exposed surface of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the nose of the tread.

    Exceptions:

    1. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or hand-rail, including balusters or in-fill panels, complying with Sections R311.7.6 and R312 and the plane of the glass is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing; or
    2. When a solid wall or panel extends from the plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 inches (864 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above the walking surface and the construction at the top of that wall or panel is capable of withstanding the same horizontal load as a guard.

R308.5 Site built windows. Site built windows shall comply with Section 2404 of the California Building Code.

R308.6 Skylights and sloped glazing. Skylights and sloped glazing shall comply with the following sections.

R308.6.1 Definitions.

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing materials in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition.

UNIT SKYLIGHT. A factory assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material, that allows for natural daylighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.

R308.6.2 Permitted materials. The following types of glazing may be used:

  1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015-inch (0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area located such that the highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch (0.76 mm).
  2. Fully tempered glass.
  3. Heat-strengthened glass.
  4. Wired glass.
  5. Approved rigid plastics.

R308.6.3 Screens, general. For fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Section R308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for fully tempered glass that meets either condition listed in Section R308.6.5.

R308.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing. When the inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened or wired glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Section R308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for either condition listed in Section R308.6.5. All other panes in the multiple glazing may be of any type listed in Section. R308.6.2.

R308.6.5 Screens not required. Screens shall not be required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the following conditions are met:

  1. Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m2) or less. Highest point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 3/16 inch (4.8 mm), and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass.
  2. Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49 m2). Glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area.
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R308.6.6 Glass in greenhouses. Any glazing material is permitted to be installed without screening in the sloped areas of greenhouses, provided the greenhouse height at the ridge does not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) above grade.

R308.6.7 Screen characteristics. The screen and its fastenings shall be capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing, be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members, and have a mesh opening of no more than 1 inch by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm).

R308.6.8 Curbs for skylights. All unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) shall be mounted on a curb extending at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

R308.6.9 Testing and labeling. Unit skylights shall be tested by an approved independent laboratory, and bear a label identifying manufacturer, performance grade rating and approved inspection agency to indicate compliance with the requirements of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440.

SECTION R309
GARAGES AND CARPORTS

R309.1 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

R309.2 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

R309.3 Flood hazard areas. For buildings located in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), garage floors shall be:

  1. Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as determined in Section R322; or
  2. Located below the design flood elevation provided they are at or above grade on at least one side, are used solely for parking, building access or storage, meet the requirements of Section R322 and are otherwise constructed in accordance with this code.

R309.4 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. See Health and Safety Code Sections 19890 and 19891 for additional provisions for residential garage door openers.

R309.5 Extension garage door springs. Every extension garage door spring sold or offered for sale, whether new or sold as a replacement, or installed in any garage or carport which is accessory to a dwelling covered by this code, shall conform to the requirements for garage door springs located in Section 1211 of the California Building Code.

R309.6 Fire sprinklers. Carports with habitable space above and attached garages shall be protected by residential fire sprinkler system in accordance with this section. Residential fire sprinklers shall be connected to, and installed in accordance with, a fire sprinkler system that complies with Section R313 or NFPA 13D. Fire sprinklers shall be residential sprinklers or quick-response sprinklers, designed to provide a minimum density of 0.05 gpm/ft2 (2.04 mm/min) over the area of the garage and/or carport, but not to exceed two sprinklers for hydraulic calculation purposes. Garage doors shall not be considered obstructions with respect to sprinkler placement.

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required when additions or alterations are made to existing carports and/or garages that do not have an automatic residential fire sprinkler system installed in accordance with this section.

SECTION R310
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS

R310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Basements, habitable attics and every sleeping room shall have at least one operable emergency escape and rescue opening. Where basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency, egress and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping room. Where emergency escape and rescue openings are provided they shall have a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. Where a door opening having a threshold below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an emergency escape and rescue opening and is provided with a bulkhead enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply with Section R310.3. The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the emergency escape and resuce openings from the inside. Emergency escape and rescue openings with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Section R310.2. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall open directly into a public way, or to a yard or court that opens to a public way.

Exception: Basements used only to house mechanical equipment and not exceeding total floor area of 200 square feet (18.58 m2).

R310.1.1 Minimum opening area. All emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet (0.530 m2).

Exception: Grade floor openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5 square feet (0.465 m2).

R310.1.2 Minimum opening height. The minimum net clear opening height shall be 24 inches (610 mm).

R310.1.3 Minimum opening width. The minimum net clear opening width shall be 20 inches (508 mm).

R310.1.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be maintained free of any obstruct

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tions other than those allowed by this section and shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys, tools or special knowledge.

R310.2 Window wells. The minimum horizontal area of the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.9 m2), with a minimum horizontal projection and width of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened.

Exception: The ladder or steps required by Section R310.2.1 shall be permitted to encroach a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) into the required dimensions of the window well.

R310.2.1 Ladder and steps. Window wells with a vertical depth greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable with the window in the fully open position. Ladders or steps required by this section shall not be required to comply with Sections R311.7 and R311.8. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on center vertically for the full height of the window well.

R310.3 Bulkhead enclosures. Bulkhead enclosures shall provide direct access to the basement. The bulkhead enclosure with the door panels in the fully open position shall provide the minimum net clear opening required by Section R310.1.1. Bulkhead enclosures shall also comply with Section R311.7.8.2.

R310.4 Bars, grilles, covers and screens. Bars, grilles, covers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, or window wells that serve such openings, provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with Sections R310.1.1 to R310.1.3, and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special knowledge, or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening. The release mechanism shall be maintained operable at all times.

Such bars, grills, grates or any similar devices shall be equipped with an approved exterior release device for use by the fire department only when required by the authority having jurisdiction.

Where security bars (burglar bars) are installed on emergency egress and rescue windows or doors, on or after July 1, 2000, such devices shall comply with California Building Standards Code, Part 12, Chapter 12-3 and other applicable provisions of this code.

SECTION R311
MEANS OF EGRESS

R311.1 Means of egress. All dwellings shall be provided with a means of egress as provided in this section. The means of egress shall provide a continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from all portions of the dwelling to the exterior of the dwelling at the required egress door without requiring travel through a garage.

R311.2 Egress door. At least one egress door shall be provided for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side-hinged, and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) when measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). The minimum clear height of the door opening shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the threshold to the bottom of the stop. Other doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions. Egress doors shall be readily openable from inside the dwelling without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

R311.3 Floors and landings at exterior doors. There shall be a landing or floor on each side of each exterior door. The width of each landing shall not be less than the door served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel. Exterior landings shall be permitted to have a slope not to exceed ¼ unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent).

Exception: Exterior balconies less than 60 square feet (5.6 m2) and only accessible from a door are permitted to have a landing less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.

R311.3.1 Floor elevations at the required egress doors. Landings or floors at the required egress door shall not be more then 1½ inches (38 mm) lower than the top of the threshold.

Exception: The exterior landing or floor shall not be more than 7¾ inches (196 mm) below the top of the threshold provided the door does not swing over the landing or floor.

When exterior landings or floors serving the required egress door are not at grade, they shall be provided with access to grade by means of a ramp in accordance with Section R311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section R311.7.

R311.3.2 Floor elevations for other exterior doors. Doors other than the required egress door shall be provided with landings or floors not more than 7¾ inches (196 mm) below the top of the threshold.

Exception: A landing is not required where a stairway of two or fewer risers is located on the exterior side of the door, provided the door does not swing over the stairway.

R311.3.3 Storm and screen doors. Storm and screen doors shall be permitted to swing over all exterior stairs and landings.

R311.4 Vertical egress. Egress from habitable levels including habitable attics and basements not provided with an egress door in accordance with Section R311.2 shall be by one or more ramps in accordance with Section R311.7 or both. For habitable levels or basements located more than one story above or more than one story below an egress door, the maximum travel distance from any occupied point to a stairway or ramp that provides egress from such habitable level or basement, shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

R311.5 Construction.

R311.5.1 Attachment. Exterior landings, decks, balconies, stairs and similar facilities shall be positively anchored to

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the primary structure to resist both vertical and lateral forces or shall be designed to be self-supporting. Attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal.

R311.6 Hallways. The minimum width of a hallway shall be not less than 3 feet (914 mm).

R311.7 Stairways.

R311.7.1 Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted handrail height and below the required headroom height. Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches (114 mm) on either side of the stairway and the minimum clear width of the stairway at and below the handrail height, including treads and landings, shall not be less than 31½ inches (787 mm) where a handrail is installed on one side and 27 inches (698 mm) where handrails are provided on both sides.

Exception: The width of spiral stairways shall be in accordance with Section R311.7.9.1.

R311.7.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from the sloped line adjoining the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform on that portion of the stairway.

Exception: Where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom a maximum of 4¾ inches (121 mm).

R311.7.3 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall be concentric to the curved direction of travel through the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the winder. If winders are adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used.

R311.7.4 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers shall meet the requirements of this section. For the purposes of this section all dimensions and dimensioned surfaces shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners.

R311.7.4.1 Riser height. The maximum riser height shall be 7¾ inches (196 mm). The riser shall be measured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).

R311.7.4.2 Tread depth. The minimum tread depth shall be 10 inches (254 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread’s leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Consistently shaped winders at the walkline shall be allowed within the same flight of stairs as rectangular treads and do not have to be within 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) of the rectangular tread depth.

Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point within the clear width of the stair. Within any flight of stairs, the largest winder tread depth at the walkline shall not exceed the smallest winder tread by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).

R311.7.4.3 Profile The radius of curvature at the nosing shall be no greater than 9/16 inch (14 mm). A nosing not less than ¾ inch (19 mm) but not more than 1¼ inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers. The greatest nosing projection shall not exceed the smallest nosing projection by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) between two stories, including the nosing at the level of floors and landings. Beveling of nosings shall not exceed ½ inch (12.7 mm). Risers shall be vertical or sloped under the tread above from the underside of the nosing above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.51 rad) from the vertical. Open risers are permitted, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a 4-inch diameter (102 mm) sphere.

Exceptions:

  1. A nosing is not required where the tread depth is a minimum of 11 inches (279 mm).
  2. The opening between adjacent treads is not limited on stairs with a total rise of 30 inches (762 mm) or less.

R311.7.4.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite stair treads. Wood/plastic composite stair treads shall comply with the provisions of Section R317.4.

R311.7.5 Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway.

Exception: A floor or landing is not required at the top of an interior flight of stairs, including stairs in an enclosed garage, provided a door does not swing over the stairs. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise larger than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings. The width of each landing shall not be less than the width of the stairway served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.

R311.7.6 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface of treads and landings of stairways shall be sloped no steeper than one unit vertical in 48 inches horizontal (2-percent slope).

R311.7.7 Handrails. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of each continuous run of treads or flight with four or more risers.

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R311.7.7.1 Height. Handrail height, measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
  2. When handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, the transition from handrail to guardrail, or used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum height.

R311.7.7.2 Continuity. Handrails for stairways shall be continuous for the full length of the flight, from a point directly above the top riser of the flight to a point directly above the lowest riser of the flight. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrail adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 1½ inch (38 mm) between the wall and the handrails.

Exceptions:

  1. Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at the turn.
  2. The use of a volute, turnover, starting easing or starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest tread.

R311.7.7.3 Grip-size. All required handrails shall be of one of the following types or provide equivalent graspability.

  1. Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1¼ inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6¼ inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross section of dimension of 2¼ inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
  2. Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 6¼ inches (160 mm) shall have a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of ¾ inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/16 inch (8 mm) within 7/8 inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for at least 3/8 inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 1¾ inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 1¼ inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 2¾ inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).

R311.7.7.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite handrails. Wood/plastic composite handrails shall comply with the provisions of Section R317.4.

R311.7.8 Illumination. All stairs shall be provided with illumination in accordance with Section R303.6.

R311.7.9 Special stairways. Spiral stairways and bulkhead enclosure stairways shall comply with all requirements of Section R311.7 except as specified below.

R311.7.9.1 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted, provided the minimum clear width at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm) with each tread having a 7½ inch (190 mm) minimum tread depth at 12 inches (914 mm) from the narrower edge. All treads shall be identical, and the rise shall be no more than 9½ inches (241 mm). A minimum headroom of 6 feet 6 inches (1982 mm) shall be provided.

R311.7.9.2 Bulkhead enclosure stairways. Stairways serving bulkhead enclosures, not part of the required building egress, providing access from the outside grade level to the basement shall be exempt from the requirements of Sections R311.3 and R311.7 where the maximum height from the basement finished floor level to grade adjacent to the stairway does not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) and the grade level opening to the stairway is covered by a bulkhead enclosure with hinged doors or other approved means.

R311.8 Ramps.

R311.8.1 Maximum slope. Ramps shall have a maximum slope of 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.3 percent slope).

Exception: Where it is technically infeasible to comply because of site constraints, ramps may have a maximum slope of one unit vertical in eight horizontal (12.5 percent slope).

R311.8.2 Landings required. A minimum 3-foot-by-3-foot (914 mm by 914 mm) landing shall be provided:

  1. At the top and bottom of ramps.
  2. Where doors open onto ramps.
  3. Where ramps change direction.

R311.8.3 Handrails required. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of all ramps exceeding a slope of one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope).

R311.8.3.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above the finished surface of the ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).

R311.8.3.2 Grip size. Handrails on ramps shall comply with Section R311.7.7.3.

R311.8.3.3 Continuity. Handrails where required on ramps shall be continuous for the full length of the ramp. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 1½ inches (38 mm) between the wall and the handrails.

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SECTION R312
GUARDS

R312.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, ramps and landings, that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge of the open side. Insect screening shall not be considered as a guard.

R312.2 Height. Required guards at open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high measured vertically above the adjacent walking surface, adjacent fixed seating or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

Exceptions:

  1. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
  2. Where the top of the guard also serves as handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

R312.3 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have openings from the walking surface to the required guard height which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter.

Exceptions:

  1. The triangular openings at the open side of a stair, formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail of a guard shall not allow passage of a sphere 6 inches (153 mm) in diameter.
  2. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 43/8 inches (111 mm) in diameter.

R312.4 Exterior woodplastic composite guards. Woodplastic composite guards shall comply with the provisions of Section R317.4.

SECTION R313
AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

R313.1 Townhouse automatic fire sprinkler systems. An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be installed in townhouses.

Exceptions: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required when additions or alterations are made to existing townhouses that do not have an automatic residential fire sprinkler system installed.

R313.1.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential fire sprinkler systems for townhouses shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section R313.3 or NFPA 13D.

R313.2 One- and two-family dwellings automatic fire systems. An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be installed in one- and two- family dwellings.

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required for additions or alterations to existing buildings that are not already provided with an automatic residential sprinkler system.

R313.2.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential fire sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section R313.3 or NFPA 13D.

R313.3 Dwelling unit fire sprinkler systems.

R313.3.1 General. Where installed, residential fire sprinkler systems, or portions thereof, shall be in accordance with NFPA 13D or Section R313.3, which shall be considered equivalent to NFPA 13D. Section R313.3 shall apply to stand-alone and multipurpose wet-pipe sprinkler systems that do not include the use of antifreeze. A multipurpose fire sprinkler system shall supply domestic water to both fire sprinklers and plumbing fixtures. A stand-alone sprinkler system shall be separate and independent from the water distribution system. A backflow flow preventer shall not be required to separate a stand-alone sprinkler system from the water distribution system.

R313.3.1.1 Required sprinkler locations. Sprinklers shall be installed to protect all areas of a dwelling unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that do not contain fuel-fired appliances do not require sprinklers. In attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that contain fuel-fired equipment, a sprinkler shall be installed above the equipment; however, sprinklers shall not be required in the remainder of the space.
  2. Clothes closets, linen closets and pantries not exceeding 24 square feet (2.2 m2) in area, with the smallest dimension not greater than 3 feet (915 mm) and having wall and ceiling surfaces of gypsum board.
  3. Bathrooms not more than 55 square feet (5.1 m2) in area.
  4. Detached garages; carports with no habitable space above; open attached porches; unheated entry areas, such as mud rooms, that are adjacent to an exterior door; and similar areas.

R313.3.2 Sprinklers. Sprinklers shall be new listed residential sprinklers and shall be installed in accordance with the sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions.

R313.3.2.1 Temperature rating and separation from heat sources. Except as provided for in Section R313.3.2.2, sprinklers shall have a temperature rating of not less than 135°F (57°C) and not more than 170°F (77°C). Sprinklers shall be separated from heat sources

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as required by the sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions.

R313.3.2.2 Intermediate temperature sprinklers. Sprinklers shall have an intermediate temperature rating not less than 175°F (79°C) and not more than 225°F (107°C) where installed in the following locations:

  1. Directly under skylights, where the sprinkler is exposed to direct sunlight.
  2. In attics.
  3. In concealed spaces located directly beneath a roof.
  4. Within the distance to a heat source as specified in Table R313.3.2.2.

R313.3.2.3 Freezing areas. Piping shall be protected from freezing as required by the California Plumbing Code. Where sprinklers are required in areas that are subject to freezing, dry-sidewall or dry-pendent sprinklers extending from a nonfreezing area into a freezing area shall be installed. Where fire sprinkler piping cannot be adequately protected against freezing, the system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 13D.

R313.3.2.4 Sprinkler coverage. Sprinkler coverage requirements and sprinkler obstruction requirements shall be in accordance with Sections R313.3.2.4.1 and R313.3.2.4.2.

R313.3.2.4.1 Coverage area limit. The area of coverage of a single sprinkler shall not exceed 400 square feet (37 m2) and shall be based on the sprinkler listing and the sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions.

R313.3.2.4.2 Obstructions to coverage. Sprinkler discharge shall not be blocked by obstructions unless additional sprinklers are installed to protect the obstructed area. Sprinkler separation from obstructions shall comply with the minimum distance specified in the sprinkler manufacturer’s instructions, and/or the provisions of NFPA 13D.

R313.3.2.4.2.1 Additional requirements for pendent sprinklers. Pendent sprinklers within 3 feet (915 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted ceiling luminaire or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed, and additional sprinklers shall be installed.

R313.3.2.4.2.2 Additional requirements for sidewall sprinklers. Sidewall sprinklers within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted, ceiling luminaire or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed, and additional sprinklers shall be installed.

R313.3.2.5 Sprinkler installation on systems assembled with solvent cement. The solvent cementing of threaded adapter fittings shall be completed and threaded adapters for sprinklers shall be verified as being clear of excess cement prior to the installation of sprinklers on systems assembled with solvent cement.

R313.3.2.6 Sprinkler modifications prohibited. Painting, caulking or modifying of sprinklers shall be prohibited. Sprinklers that have been painted, caulked, modified or damaged shall be replaced with new sprinklers.

TABLE R313.3.2.2
LOCATIONS WHERE INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIRED
HEAT SOURCE RANGE OF DISTANCE FROM HEAT SOURCE WITHIN WHICH INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIREDa,b (inches)
a. Sprinklers shall not be located at distance less than the minimum table distance unless the sprinkler listing allows a lesser distance.
b. Distances shall be measured in a straight line from the nearest edge of the heat source to the nearest edge of the sprinkler.
Fireplace, side of open or recessed fireplace 12 to 36
Fireplace, front of recessed fireplace 36 to 60
Coal and wood burning stove 12 to 42
Kitchen range top 9 to 18
Oven 9 to 18
Vent connector or chimney connector 9 to 18
Heating duct, not insulated 9 to 18
Hot water pipe, not insulated 6 to 12
Side of ceiling or wall warm air register 12 to 24
Front of wall mounted warm air register 18 to 36
Water heater, furnace or boiler 3 to 6
Luminaire up to 250 watts 3 to 6
Luminaire 250 watts up to 499 watts 6 to 12
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R313.3.3 Sprinkler piping system. Sprinkler piping shall be supported in accordance with the requirements for cold water distribution piping. Sprinkler piping shall comply with all requirements for cold water distribution piping. For multipurpose piping systems, the sprinkler piping shall connect to and be a part of the cold water distribution piping system.

R313.3.3.1 Nonmetallic pipe and tubing. Nonmetallic pipe and tubing, such as CPVC and PEX, shall be listed for use in residential fire sprinkler systems.

R313.3.3.1.1 Nonmetallic pipe protection. Nonmetallic pipe and tubing systems shall be protected from exposure to the living space by a layer of not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick gypsum wallboard, ½ inch thick plywood (13 mm), or other material having a 15 minute fire rating.

Exceptions:

  1. Pipe protection shall not be required in areas that do not require protection with sprinklers as specified in Section R313.3.1.1.
  2. Pipe protection shall not be required where exposed piping is permitted by the pipe listing.

R313.3.3.2 Shutoff valves prohibited. With the exception of shutoff valves for the entire water distribution system, valves shall not be installed in any location where the valve would isolate piping serving one or more sprinklers.

R313.3.3.3 Single dwelling limit. Piping beyond the service valve located at the begining of the water distribution system shall not serve more than one dwelling.

R313.3.3.4 Drain. A means to drain the sprinkler system shall be provided on the system side of the water distribution shutoff valve.

R313.3.4 Determining system design flow. The flow for sizing the sprinkler piping system shall be based on the flow rating of each sprinkler in accordance with Section R313.3.4.1 and the calculation in accordance with Section R313.3.4.2.

R313.3.4.1 Determining required flow rate for each sprinkler. The minimum required flow for each sprinkler shall be determined using the sprinkler manufacturer’s published data for the specific sprinkler model based on all of the following:

  1. The area of coverage.
  2. The ceiling configuration.
  3. The temperature rating.
  4. Any additional conditions specified by the sprinkler manufacturer.

R313.3.4.2 System design flow rate. The design flow rate for the system shall be based on the following:

  1. The design flow rate for a room having only one sprinkler shall be the flow rate required for that sprinkler, as determined by Section R313.3.4.1.
  2. The design flow rate for a room having two or more sprinklers a shall be determined by identifying the sprinkler in that room with the highest required flow rate, based on Section R313.3.4.1 and multiplying that flow rate by 2.
  3. Where the sprinkler manufacturer specifies different criteria for ceiling configurations that are not smooth, flat and horizontal, the required flow rate for that room shall comply with the sprinkler manufacturer’s instructions.
  4. The design flow rate for the sprinkler system shall be the flow required by the room with the largest flow rate, based on Items 1, 2 and 3.
  5. For the purpose of this section, it shall be permissible to reduce the design flow rate for a room by subdividing the space into two or more rooms, where each room is evaluated separately with respect to the required design flow rate. Each room shall be bounded by walls and a ceiling. Openings in walls shall have a lintel not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in depth and each intel shall form a solid barrier between the ceiling and the top of the opening.

R313.3.5 Water supply. The water supply shall provide not less than the required design flow rate for sprinklers in accordance with Section R313.3.4.2 at a pressure not less than that used to comply with Section R313.3.6. Where a water supply serves both domestic and fire sprinkler systems, 5 gpm (19 L/min) shall be added to the sprinkler system demand at the point where the systems are connected, to determine the size of common piping and the size of the total water supply requirements where no provision is made to prevent flow into the domestic water system upon operation of a sprinkler.

R313.3.5.1 Water supply from individual sources. Where a dwelling unit water supply is from a tank system, a private well system, a pump, or a combination of these, the available water supply shall be based on the minimum pressure control setting for the pump.

R313.3.5.2 Required capacity. The water supply shall have the capacity to provide the required design flow rate for sprinklers for a period of time as follows:

  1. 7 minutes for dwelling unitsonestory in height and less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area. For the purpose of determining the area of the dwelling unit, the area of attached garages and attached open carports, porches, balconies and patios shall not be included.
  2. 10 minutes for dwelling units two or more stories in height or equal to or greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area. For the purpose of determining the area of the dwelling unit, the area of attached garages and attached open carports, porches, balconies, and patios shall not be included.

Where a well system, a water supply tank system, a pump, or a combination thereof, is used, the water supply shall serve both domestic and fire sprinkler systems. Any

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combination of well capacity and tank storage shall be permitted to meet the capacity requirement.

R313.3.6 Pipe sizing. The piping to sprinklers shall be sized for the flow required by Section R313.3.4.2. The flow required to supply the plumbing fixtures shall not be required to be added to the sprinkler design flow.

R313.3.6.1 Method of sizing pipe. Piping supplying sprinklers shall be sized using the prescriptive method in Section R313.3.6.2 or by hydraulic calculation in accordance with NFPA 13D. The minimum pipe size from the water supply source to any sprinkler shall be ¾ inch (19 mm) nominal. Threaded adapter fittings at the point where sprinklers are attached to the piping shall be a minimum of ½ inch (13 mm) nominal.

R313.3.6.2 Prescriptive pipe sizing method. Pipe shall be sized by determining the available pressure to offset friction loss in piping and identifying a piping material, diameter and length using the equation in Section R313.3.6.2.1 and the procedure in Section R313.3.6.2.2.

R313.3.6.2.1 Available pressure equation. The pressure available to offset friction loss in the interior piping system (Pt) shall be determined in accordance with the Equation 29-1.

(Equation 29-1) Image

where:

Pt = Pressure used in applying Tables R313.3.6.2(4) through R313.3.6.2(9).

Psup = Pressure available from the water supply source.

PLsvc = Pressure loss in the water-service pipe.

PLm = Pressure loss in the water meter.

PLd = Pressure loss from devices other than the water meter.

PLe = Pressure loss associated with changes in elevation.

PLsp = Maximum pressure required by a sprinkler.

R313.3.6.2.2 Calculation procedure. Determination of the required size for water distribution piping shall be in accordance with the following procedure:

Step 1-Determine Psup

Obtain the static supply pressure that will be available from the water main from the water purveyor, or for an individual source, the available supply pressure shall be in accordance with Section R313.3.5.1.

Step 2-Determine PLsvc

Use Table R313.3.6.2(1) to determine the pressure loss in the water service pipe based on the selected size of the water service.

Step 3-Determine PLm

Use Table R313.3.6.2(2) to determine the pressure loss from the water meter, based on the selected water meter size.

Step 4-Determine PLd

Determine the pressure loss from devices other than the water meter installed in the piping system supplying sprinklers, such as pressure-reducing valves, backflow preventers, water softeners or water filters. Device pressure losses shall be based on the device manufacturer’s specifications. The flow rate used to determine pressure loss shall be the rate from Section R313.3.4.2, except that 5 gpm (0.3 L/S) shall be added where the device is installed in a water-service pipe that supplies more than one dwelling. As alternative to deducting pressure loss for a device, an automatic bypass valve shall be installed to divert flow around the device when a sprinkler activates.

Step 5 - DeterminePLe

Use Table R313.3.6.2(3) to determine the pressure loss associated with changes in elevation. The elevation used in applying the table shall be the difference between the elevation where the water source pressure was measured and the elevation of the highest sprinkler.

Step 6 - DeterminePsp

Determine the maximum pressure required by any individual sprinkler based on the flow rate from Section R313.3.4.1. The required pressure is provided in the sprinkler manufacturer’s published data for the specific sprinkler model based on the selected flow rate.

Step 7 - CalculatePt

Using Equation 29-1, calculate the pressure available to offset friction loss in water-distribution piping between the service valve and the sprinklers.

Step 8 - Determine the maximum allowable pipe length

Use Tables R313.3.6.2(4) through R313.3.6.2(9) to select a material and size for water distribution piping. The piping material and size shall be acceptable if the developed length of pipe between the service valve and the most remote sprinkler does not exceed the maximum allowable length specified by the applicable table. Interpolation of Pt between the tabular values shall be permitted.

The maximum allowable length of piping in Tables R313.3.6.2(4) through R313.3.6.2(9) incorporates an adjustment for pipe fittings, and no additional consideration of friction losses associated with pipe fittings shall be required.

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R313.3.7 Instructions and signs. An owner’s manual for the fire sprinkler system shall be provided to the owner. A sign or valve tag shall be installed at the main shutoff valve to the water distribution system stating the following: “Warning, the water system for this home supplies fire sprinklers that require certain flows and pressures to fight a fire. Devices that restrict the flow or decrease the pressure or automatically shut off the water to the fire sprinkler system, such as water softeners, filtration systems and automatic shutoff valves, shall not be added to this system without a review of the fire sprinkler system by a fire protection specialist. Do not remove this sign.”

R313.3.8 Inspections. The water distribution system shall be inspected in accordance with Sections R313.3.8.1 and R313.3.8.2.

R313.3.8.1 Preconcealment inspection. The following items shall be verified prior to the concealment of any sprinkler system piping:

  1. Sprinklers are installed in all areas as required by Section R313.3.1.1.
  2. Where sprinkler water spray patterns are obstructed by construction features, luminaires or ceiling fans, additional sprinklers are installed as required by Section R313.3.2.4.2.
  3. Sprinklers are the correct temperature rating and are installed at or beyond the required separation distances from heat sources as required by Sections R313.3.2.1 and R313.3.2.2.
  4. The pipe size equals or exceeds the size used in applying Tables R313.3.6.2(4) through R313.3.6.2(9) or, if the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section R313.3.6.1, the size used in the hydraulic calculation.
  5. The pipe length does not exceed the length permitted by Tables R313.3.6.2(4) through R313.3.6.2(9) or, if the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section R313.3.6.1, pipe lengths and fittings do not exceed those used in the hydraulic calculation.
  6. Nonmetallic piping that conveys water to sprinklers is listed for use with fire sprinklers.
  7. Piping is supported in accordance with the pipe manufacturer’s and sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions.
  8. The piping system is tested in accordance with the California Plumbing Code.

R313.3.8.2 Final inspection. The following items shall be verified upon completion of the system:

  1. Sprinkler are not painted, damaged or otherwise hindered from operation.
  2. Where a pump is required to provide water to the system, the pump starts automatically upon system water demand.
  3. Pressure-reducing valves, water softeners, water filters or other impairments to water flow that were not part of the original design have not been installed.
  4. The sign or valve tag required by Section R313.3.7 is installed and the owner’s manual for the system is present.
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TABLE R313.3.6.2(2)
MINIMUM WATER METER PRESSURE LOSS (PLm)a
FLOW RATE (gallons per minute, gpm)b 5/8 INCH METER PRESSURE LOSS (pounds per square inch, psi) ¾ INCH METER PRESSURE LESS (pounds per square inch, psi) 1 INCH METER PRESSURE LOSS (pounds per square inch, psi)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.063 L/s.
NP - Not permitted unless the actual water meter pressure loss is known.
a. Table R313.3.6.2(2) establishes conservative values for water meter pressure loss or installations where the water meter loss is unknown. Where the actual water meter pressure loss is known, Pnv shall be the actual loss.
b. Flow rate from Section R313.3.4.2. Add 5 gpm to the flow rate required by Section R313.3.4.2 where the water-service pipe supplies more than one dwelling.
8 2 1 1
10 3 1 1
12 4 1 1
14 5 2 1
16 7 3 1
18 9 4 1
20 11 4 2
22 NP 5 2
24 NP 5 2
26 NP 6 2
28 NP 6 2
30 NP 7 2
32 NP 7 3
34 NP 8 3
36 NP 8 3
TABLE R313.3.6.2(3)
ELEVATION LOSS (PLe)
ELEVATION (feet) PRESSURE LOSS (psi)
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
5 2.2
10 4.4
15 6.5
20 8.7
25 10.9
30 13
ult35 15.2
40 17.4
87
TABLE R313.3.6.2(4)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR ¾-INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING
SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm) WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch) AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.
NP - Not permitted
a. Flow rate from Section R313.3.4.2.
8 ¾ 217 289 361 434 506 578 650 723 795 867
9 ¾ 174 232 291 349 407 465 523 581 639 697
10 ¾ 143 191 239 287 335 383 430 478 526 574
11 ¾ 120 160 200 241 281 321 361 401 441 481
12 ¾ 102 137 171 205 239 273 307 341 375 410
13 ¾ 88 118 147 177 206 235 265 294 324 353
14 ¾ 77 103 128 154 180 205 231 257 282 308
15 ¾ 68 90 113 136 158 181 203 226 248 271
16 ¾ 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 241
17 ¾ 54 72 90 108 125 143 161 179 197 215
18 ¾ 48 64 81 97 113 129 145 161 177 193
19 ¾ 44 58 73 88 102 117 131 146 160 175
20 ¾ 40 53 66 80 93 106 119 133 146 159
21 ¾ 36 48 61 73 85 97 109 121 133 145
22 ¾ 33 44 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133
23 ¾ 31 41 51 61 72 82 92 102 113 123
24 ¾ 28 38 47 57 66 76 85 95 104 114
25 ¾ 26 35 44 53 61 70 79 88 97 105
26 ¾ 24 33 41 49 57 65 73 82 90 98
27 ¾ 23 30 38 46 53 61 69 76 84 91
28 ¾ 21 28 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 85
29 ¾ 20 27 33 40 47 53 60 67 73 80
30 ¾ 19 25 31 38 44 50 56 63 69 75
31 ¾ 18 24 29 35 41 47 53 59 65 71
32 ¾ 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 56 61 67
33 ¾ 16 21 26 32 37 42 47 53 58 63
34 ¾ NP 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
35 ¾ NP 19 24 28 33 38 42 47 52 57
36 ¾ NP 18 22 27 31 36 40 45 49 54
37 ¾ NP 17 21 26 30 34 38 43 47 51
38 ¾ NP 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 45 49
39 ¾ NP 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 42 46
40 ¾ NP NP 18 22 26 29 33 37 40 44
88
TABLE R313.3.6.2(5)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING
SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm) WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch) AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.
a. Flow rate from Section R313.3.4.2.
8 1 806 1075 1343 1612 1881 2149 2418 2687 2955 3224
9 1 648 864 1080 1296 1512 1728 1945 2161 2377 2593
10 1 533 711 889 1067 1245 1422 1600 1778 1956 2134
11 1 447 586 745 894 1043 1192 1341 1491 1640 1789
12 1 381 508 634 761 888 1015 1142 1269 1396 1523
13 1 328 438 547 657 766 875 985 1094 1204 1313
14 1 286 382 477 572 668 763 859 954 1049 1145
15 1 252 336 420 504 588 672 756 840 924 1008
16 1 224 298 373 447 522 596 671 745 820 894
17 1 200 266 333 400 466 533 600 666 733 799
18 1 180 240 300 360 420 479 539 599 659 719
19 1 163 217 271 325 380 434 488 542 597 651
20 1 148 197 247 296 345 395 444 493 543 592
21 1 135 180 225 270 315 360 406 451 496 541
22 1 124 165 207 248 289 331 372 413 455 496
23 1 114 152 190 228 267 305 343 381 419 457
24 1 106 141 176 211 246 282 317 352 387 422
25 1 98 131 163 196 228 261 294 326 359 392
26 1 91 121 152 182 212 243 273 304 334 364
27 1 85 113 142 170 198 226 255 283 311 340
28 1 79 106 132 159 185 212 238 265 291 318
29 1 74 99 124 149 174 198 223 248 273 298
30 1 70 93 116 140 163 186 210 233 256 280
31 1 66 88 110 132 153 175 197 219 241 263
32 1 62 83 103 124 145 165 186 207 227 248
33 1 59 78 98 117 137 156 176 195 215 234
34 1 55 74 92 111 129 148 166 185 203 222
35 1 53 70 88 105 123 140 158 175 193 210
36 1 50 66 83 100 116 133 150 166 183 199
37 1 47 63 79 95 111 126 142 158 174 190
38 1 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 181
39 1 43 57 72 86 100 115 129 143 158 172
40 1 41 55 68 82 96 109 123 137 150 164
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TABLE R313.3.6.2(6)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR ¾-INCH CPVC PIPE
SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm) WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch) AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt (psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.
Flow rate from Section R313.3.4.2.
8 ¾ 348 465 581 697 813 929 1045 1161 1278 1394
9 ¾ 280 374 467 560 654 747 841 934 1027 1121
10 ¾ 231 307 384 461 538 615 692 769 845 922
11 ¾ 193 258 322 387 451 515 580 644 709 773
12 ¾ 165 219 274 329 384 439 494 549 603 658
13 ¾ 142 189 237 284 331 378 426 473 520 568
14 ¾ 124 165 206 247 289 330 371 412 454 495
15 ¾ 109 145 182 218 254 290 327 363 399 436
16 ¾ 97 129 161 193 226 258 290 322 354 387
17 ¾ 86 115 144 173 202 230 259 288 317 346
18 ¾ 78 104 130 155 181 207 233 259 285 311
19 ¾ 70 94 117 141 164 188 211 234 258 281
20 ¾ 64 85 107 128 149 171 192 213 235 256
21 ¾ 58 78 97 117 136 156 175 195 214 234
22 ¾ 54 71 89 107 125 143 161 179 197 214
23 ¾ 49 66 82 99 115 132 148 165 181 198
24 ¾ 46 61 76 91 107 122 137 152 167 183
25 ¾ 42 56 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169
26 ¾ 39 52 66 79 92 105 118 131 144 157
27 ¾ 37 49 61 73 86 98 110 122 135 147
28 ¾ 34 46 57 69 80 92 103 114 126 137
29 ¾ 32 43 54 64 75 86 96 107 118 129
30 ¾ 30 40 50 60 70 81 91 101 111 121
31 ¾ 28 38 47 57 66 76 85 95 104 114
32 ¾ 27 36 45 54 63 71 80 89 98 107
33 ¾ 25 34 42 51 59 68 76 84 93 101
34 ¾ 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96
35 ¾ 23 30 38 45 53 61 68 76 83 91
36 ¾ 22 29 36 43 50 57 65 72 79 86
37 ¾ 20 27 34 41 48 55 61 68 75 82
38 ¾ 20 26 33 39 46 52 59 65 72 78
39 ¾ 19 25 31 37 43 50 56 62 68 74
40 ¾ 18 24 30 35 41 47 53 59 65 71
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TABLE R313.3.6.2(7)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH CPVC PIPE
SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm) WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch) AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt(psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.
a. Flow rate from Section R313.3.4.2.
8 1 1049 1398 1748 2098 2447 2797 3146 3496 3845 4195
9 1 843 1125 1406 1687 1968 2249 2530 2811 3093 3374
10 1 694 925 1157 1388 1619 1851 2082 2314 2545 2776
11 1 582 776 970 1164 1358 1552 1746 1940 2133 2327
12 1 495 660 826 991 1156 1321 1486 1651 1816 1981
13 1 427 570 712 854 997 1139 1281 1424 1566 1709
14 1 372 497 621 745 869 993 1117 1241 1366 1490
15 1 328 437 546 656 765 874 983 1093 1202 1311
16 1 291 388 485 582 679 776 873 970 1067 1164
17 1 260 347 433 520 607 693 780 867 954 1040
18 1 234 312 390 468 546 624 702 780 858 936
19 1 212 282 353 423 494 565 635 706 776 847
20 1 193 257 321 385 449 513 578 642 706 770
21 1 176 235 293 352 410 469 528 586 645 704
22 1 161 215 269 323 377 430 484 538 592 646
23 1 149 198 248 297 347 396 446 496 545 595
24 1 137 183 229 275 321 366 412 458 504 550
25 1 127 170 212 255 297 340 382 425 467 510
26 1 118 158 197 237 276 316 355 395 434 474
27 1 111 147 184 221 258 295 332 368 405 442
28 1 103 138 172 207 241 275 310 344 379 413
29 1 97 129 161 194 226 258 290 323 355 387
30 1 91 121 152 182 212 242 273 303 333 364
31 1 86 114 143 171 200 228 257 285 314 342
32 1 81 108 134 161 188 215 242 269 296 323
33 1 76 102 127 152 178 203 229 254 280 305
34 1 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 265 289
35 1 68 91 114 137 160 182 205 228 251 273
36 1 65 87 108 130 151 173 195 216 226 260
37 1 62 82 103 123 144 165 185 206 226 247
38 1 59 78 98 117 137 157 176 196 215 235
39 1 56 75 93 112 131 149 168 187 205 224
40 1 53 71 89 107 125 142 160 178 196 214
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TABLE R313.3.6.2(8)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH PEX TUBING
SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm) WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch) AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt(psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.
NP - Not permitted.
a. Flow rate from Section R313.3.4.2.
8 ¾ 93 123 154 185 216 247 278 309 339 370
9 ¾ 74 99 124 149 174 199 223 248 273 298
10 ¾ 61 82 102 123 143 163 184 204 225 245
11 ¾ 51 68 86 103 120 137 154 171 188 205
12 ¾ 44 58 73 87 102 117 131 146 160 175
13 ¾ 38 50 63 75 88 101 113 126 138 151
14 ¾ 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132
15 ¾ 29 39 48 58 68 77 87 96 106 116
16 ¾ 26 34 43 51 60 68 77 86 94 103
17 ¾ 23 31 38 46 54 61 69 77 84 92
18 ¾ 21 28 34 41 48 55 62 69 76 83
19 ¾ 19 25 31 37 44 50 56 62 69 75
20 ¾ 17 23 28 34 40 45 51 57 62 68
21 ¾ 16 21 26 31 36 41 47 52 57 62
22 ¾ NP 19 24 28 33 38 43 47 52 57
23 ¾ NP 17 22 26 31 35 39 44 48 52
24 ¾ NP 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 49
25 ¾ NP NP 19 22 26 30 34 37 41 45
26 ¾ NP NP 17 21 24 28 31 35 38 42
27 ¾ NP NP 16 20 23 26 29 33 36 39
28 ¾ NP NP 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36
29 ¾ NP NP NP 17 20 23 26 28 31 34
30 ¾ NP NP NP 16 19 21 24 27 29 32
31 ¾ NP NP NP 15 18 20 23 25 28 30
32 ¾ NP NP NP NP 17 19 21 24 26 28
33 ¾ NP NP NP NP 16 18 20 22 25 27
34 ¾ NP NP NP NP NP 17 19 21 23 25
35 ¾ NP NP NP NP NP 16 18 20 22 24
36 ¾ NP NP NP NP NP 15 17 19 21 23
37 ¾ NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 18 20 22
38 ¾ NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 17 19 21
39 ¾ NP NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 18 20
40 ¾ NP NP NP NP NP NP NP 16 17 19
92
TABLE R313.3.6.2(9)
ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH PEX TUBING
SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm) WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch) AVAILABLE PRESSURE - Pt(psi)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.
Flow rate from Section R313.3.4.2.
8 1 314 418 523 628 732 837 941 1046 1151 1255
9 1 252 336 421 505 589 673 757 841 925 1009
10 1 208 277 346 415 485 554 623 692 761 831
11 1 174 232 290 348 406 464 522 580 638 696
12 1 148 198 247 296 346 395 445 494 543 593
13 1 128 170 213 256 298 341 383 426 469 511
14 1 111 149 186 223 260 297 334 371 409 446
15 1 98 131 163 196 229 262 294 327 360 392
16 1 87 116 145 174 203 232 261 290 319 348
17 1 78 104 130 156 182 208 233 259 285 311
18 1 70 93 117 140 163 187 210 233 257 280
19 1 63 84 106 127 148 169 190 211 232 253
20 1 58 77 96 115 134 154 173 192 211 230
21 1 53 70 88 105 123 140 158 175 193 211
22 1 48 64 80 97 113 129 145 161 177 193
23 1 44 59 74 89 104 119 133 148 163 178
24 1 41 55 69 82 96 110 123 137 151 164
25 1 38 51 64 76 89 102 114 127 140 152
26 1 35 47 59 71 83 95 106 118 130 142
27 1 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132
28 1 31 41 52 62 72 82 93 103 113 124
29 1 29 39 48 58 68 77 87 97 106 116
30 1 27 36 45 54 63 73 82 91 100 109
31 1 26 34 43 51 60 68 77 85 94 102
32 1 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 89 97
33 1 23 30 38 46 53 61 68 76 84 91
34 1 22 29 36 43 50 58 65 72 79 86
35 1 20 27 34 41 48 55 61 68 75 82
36 1 19 26 32 39 45 52 58 65 71 78
37 1 18 25 31 37 43 49 55 62 68 74
38 1 18 23 29 35 41 47 53 59 64 70
39 1 17 22 28 33 39 45 50 56 61 67
40 1 16 21 27 32 37 43 48 53 59 64
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SECTION R314
SMOKE ALARMS

R314.1 Smoke detection and notification. All smoke alarms shall be listed in accordance with UL 217 and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the household fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72. Systems and components shall be California State Fire Marshal listed and approved in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1 for the purpose for which they are installed.

R314.2 Smoke detection systems. Household fire alarm systems installed in accordance with NFPA 72 that include smoke alarm's, or a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device installed as required by this section for smoke alarms, shall be permitted. The household fire alarm system shall provide the same level of smoke detection and alarm as required by this section for smoke alarms. Where a household fire warning system is installed using a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device(s), it shall become a permanent fixture of the occupancy and owned by the homeowner. The system shall be monitored by an approved supervising station and be maintained in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Where smoke alarms are provided meeting the requirements of Section R314.4.

R314.3 Location. Smoke alarms shall be installed in the following locations:

  1. In each sleeping room.
  2. Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.
  3. On each additional story of the dwelling, including basements and habitable attics but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellingsor dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

When more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit the alarm devices shall be interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit.

R314.3.1 Alterations, repairs and additions. When alterations,repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created in existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit shall be equipped with smoke alarms located as required for new dwellings.

Exceptions: See Section R314.6.

R314.4 Power source. Smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring provided that such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in existing buildings where no construction is taking place.
  2. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in buildings that are not served from a commercial power source.
  3. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in existing areas of buildings undergoing alterations or repairs that do not result in the removal of interior walls or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for building wiring without the removal of interior finishes.

R314.5 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling or sleeping unit, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

Exceptions:

  1. Interconnection is not required in buildings that are not undergoing alterations, repairs or construction of any kind.
  2. Smoke alarms in existing areas are not required to be interconnected where alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.

R314.6 Existing Group R-3 occupancies.

R314.6.1 Existing buildings housing Group R-3 occupancies established prior to the effective date of these regulations may have their use continued if they conform or are made to conform to provisions of these regulations to the extent that reasonable and adequate life safety against the hazards of fire, panic and explosion is substantially provided. Additional means of egress, the installation of automatic sprinkler systems, automatic fire alarm system or other life safety measures may be required to provide reasonable and adequate safety.

Note: It is the intent of this section that every existing occupancy need not mandatorily conform with the requirements for new construction. Reasonable judgement in the application of requirements must be exercised by the enforcing agency.

R314.6.2 For purposes of clarification, Health and Safety Code Section 13113.7 is repeated.

  1. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a smoke detector, approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to Section 13114, shall be installed, in94accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions in each dwelling intended for human occupancy within the earliest applicable time period as follows:
    1. For all dwelling units intended for human occupancy, upon the owner’s application on or after January 1, 1985, for a permit for alterations, repairs, or additions, exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000).
    2. For all other dwelling units intended for human occupancy on or after January 1, 1987.

      However, if any local rule, regulation, or ordinance, adopted prior to the compliance dates specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) requires installation in a dwelling unit intended for human occupancy of smoke detector, which receive their power from the electrical system of the building and requires compliance with the local rule, regulation, or ordinance at a date subsequent to the dates specified in this section, the compliance date specified in the rule, regulation, or ordinance shall, but only with respect to the dwelling units specified in this section, take precedence over the dates specified in this section.

      The State Fire Marshal may adopt regulations exempting dwellings intended for human occupancy with fire sprinkler systems from the provisions of this section, if he or she determines that a smoke detector is not reasonably necessary for fire safety in the occupancy.

      Unless prohibited by local rules, regulations, or ordinances, a battery-operated smoke detector which otherwise meets the standards adopted pursuant to Section 13114 for smoke detectors, satisfies the requirements of this section.

  2. “Dwelling units intended for human occupancy,” as used in this section, includes a duplex, lodging house, apartment complex, hotel, motel, condominium, stock cooperative, time-share project, or dwelling unit of a multiple-unit dwelling complex. For the purpose of this part, “dwelling units intended for human occupancy” does not include manufactured homes as defined in Section 18007, mobile homes as defined in Section 18008, and commercial coaches as defined in Section 18001.8.
  3. The owner of each dwelling unit subject to this section shall supply and install smoke detectors required by this section in the locations and in the manner set forth in the manufacturer’s instructions, as approved by the State Fire Marshal’s regulations. In the case of apartment complexes and other multiple-dwelling complexes, a smoke detector shall be installed in the common stairwells. All fire alarm warning systems supplemental to the smoke detector shall also be listed by the State Fire Marshal.
  4. A high-rise structure, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 13210 and regulated by Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 13210), and which is used for purposes other than as dwelling units intended for human occupancy, is exempt from the requirements of this section.
  5. The owner shall be responsible for testing and maintaining detectors in hotels, motels, lodging houses, and common stairwells of apartment complexes and other multiple-dwelling complexes.

    An owner or the owner’s agent may enter any dwelling unit, efficiency dwelling unit, guest room, and suite owner by the owner for the purpose of installing, repairing, testing, and maintaining single station smoke detectors required by this section. Except in cases of emergency, the owner or owner’s agent shall give the tenants of each such unit, room, or suite reasonable notice in writing of the intention to enter and shall enter only during normal business hours. Twenty-four hours shall be presumed to be reasonable notice in absence of evidence to the contrary.

    The smoke detector shall be operable at the time that the tenant takes possession. The apartment complex tenant shall be responsible for notifying the manager or owner if the tenant becomes aware of an inoperable smoke detector within his or her unit. The owner or authorized agent shall correct any reported deficiencies in the smoke detector and shall not be in violation of this section for a deficient smoke detector when he or she has not received notice of the deficiency.

  6. A violation of this section is an infraction punishable by a maximum fine of two hundred dollars ($200) for each offense.
  7. This section shall not affect any rights which the parties may have under any other provision of law because of the presence or absence of a smoke detector.
  8. This section shall not apply to the installation of smoke detectors in single-family dwellings or factory-built housing which is regulated by Section 13113.8, as added by Assembly Bill No. 2285 of the 1983-84 Regular Session.

R314.6.3 For purposes of clarification,Health and Safety Code Section 13113.8 is repeated.

  1. On and after January 1, 1986, every single-family dwelling and factory-built housing, as defined in Section 19971, which is sold shall have an operable smoke detector. The detector shall be approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal and installed in accordance with the State Fire Marshal’s regulations. Unless prohibited by local rules, regulations, or ordinances, a battery-operated smoke detector shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section.95
  2. On and after January 1, 1986, the transferor of any real property containing a single-family dwelling, as described in subdivision (a), whether the transfer is made by sale, exchange, or real property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985 of the Civil Code, shall deliver to the transferee a written statement indicating that the transferor is in compliance with this section. The disclosure statement shall be either included in the receipt for deposit in a real estate transaction, an addendum attached thereto, or a separate document.
  3. The transferor shall deliver the statement referred to in subdivision (b) as soon as practicable before the transfer of title in the case of a sale or exchange, or prior to execution of the contract where the transfer is by a real property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985. For purpose of this subdivision, “delivery” means delivery in person or by mail to the transferee or transferor, or to any person authorized to act for him of her in the transaction, or to additional transferees who have requested delivery from the transferor in writing. Delivery to the spouse of a transferee or transferor shall be deemed delivery to a transferee or transferor, unless the contract states otherwise.
  4. This section does not apply to any of the following:
    1. Transfers which are required to be preceded by the furnishing to a prospective transferee of a copy of a public report pursuant to Section 11018.1 of the Business and Professions Code.
    2. Transfers pursuant to court order, including, but not limited to, transfers ordered by a probate court in the administration of an estate, transfers pursuant to a writ of execution, transfers by a trustee in bankruptcy, transfers by eminent domain, or transfers resulting from a decree for specific performance.
    3. Transfers to a mortgagee by a mortgagor in default, transfers to a beneficiary of a deed of trust by a trustor in default, transfers by any foreclosure sale after default, transfers by any foreclosure sale after default in an obligation secured by a mortgage, or transfers by a sale under a power of sale after a default in an obligation secured by a deed of trust or secured by any other instrument containing a power of sale.
    4. Transfers by a fiduciary in the course of the administration of a decedent's estate, guardianship, conservatorship, or trust.
    5. Transfers from one co-owner to one or more co-owners.
    6. Transfers made to a spouse, or to a person or persons in the lineal line of consanguinity of one or more of the transferors.
    7. Transfers between spouses resulting from a decree of dissolution of a marriage, from a decree of legal separation, or from a property settlement agreement incidental to either of those decrees.
    8. Transfers by the Controller in the course of administering the Unclaimed Property Law provided for in Chapter 7 (Commencing with Section 1500) of Title 10 of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
    9. Transfers under the provisions of Chapter 7 (commencing with section 3691) or Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 3771) of Part 6 of Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation code.
  5. No liability shall arise, nor any action be brought or maintained against, any agent of any party to a transfer of title, including any person or entity acting in the capacity of an escrow, for any error, inaccuracy, or omission relating to the disclosure required to be made by a transferor pursuant to this section. However, this subdivision does not apply to a licensee, as defined in Section 10011 of the Business and Professions Code, where the licensee participates in the making of the disclosure required to be made pursuant to this section with actual knowledge of the falsity of the disclosure.
  6. Except as otherwise provided in this section, this section shall not be deemed to create or imply a duty upon a licensee, as defined in Section 10011 of the Business and Professions Code, or upon any agent of any party to a transfer of title, including any person or entity acting in the capacity of an escrow, to monitor or ensure compliance with this section.
  7. No transfer of title shall be invalidated on the basis of a failure to comply with this section, and the exclusive remedy for the failure to comply with this section is an award of actual damages not to exceed one hundred dollars ($100), exclusive of any court costs and attorney's fees.
  8. Local ordinances requiring smoke detectors in single-family dwellings may be enacted or amended. However, the ordinances shall satisfy the minimum requirements of this section.
  9. For the purposes of this section, “single-family dwelling” does not include a manufactured home as defined in Section 18007, a mobilehome as defined in Section 18008, or a commercial coach as defined in Section 18001.8.
  10. This section shall not apply to the installation of smoke detectors in dwellings intended for human occupancy, as defined in and regulated by Section 13113.7 of the Health and Safety Code, as added by Senate Bill No. 1448 in the 1983-84 Regular Session.

SECTION R315
CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS

R315.1 Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed in dwelling

96

units and in sleeping units within which fuel- burning appliances are installed and in dwelling units that have attached garages.

R315.1.1 Power supply. For new construction required carbon monoxide alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery back-up. Alarm wiring shall be directly connected to the permanent building wiring without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exceptions:

  1. In dwelling units where there is no commercial power supply the carbon monoxide alarm may be solely battery operated.
  2. In existing dwelling units a carbon monoxide alarm is permitted to be solely battery operated where repairs or alterations do not result in the removed of wall and ceiling finishes or there is no access by means of attic, basement or crawl space.

R315.1.2 Interconnection. Where more than one carbon monoxide alarm is required to be installed within the dwelling unit or within a sleeping unit the alarm shall be interconnected in a manner that activation of one alarm shall activate all of the alarms in the individual unit.

Exception:

  1. Interconnection is not required in existing dwelling units where repairs do not result in the removal of wall and ceiling finishes, there is no access by means of attic, basement or crawl space, and no previous method for interconnection existed.

R315.2 Where required in existing dwellings. Where a permit is required for alterations, repairs or additions exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), existing dwellings or sleeping units that have attached garages or fuel- burning appliances shall be provided with a carbon monoxide alarm in accordance with Section R315.1. Carbon monoxide alarm shall only be required in the specific dwelling unit or sleeping unit for which the permit was obtained.

R315.3 Alarm requirements. Single and multiple-station carbon monoxide alarm shall be listed as complying with the requirements of UL 2034. Carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed as complying with the requirements of UL 2075. Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in accordance with this code, the current edition of NFPA 720 “Standard for the Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment” and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Other carbon monoxide alarm and detection devices as recognized in NFPA 720 are also acceptable.

Carbon monoxide alarms required by Sections R315.1 and R315.2 shall be installed in the following locations:

  1. Outside of each separate dwelling unit sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedroom(s).
  2. On every level of a dwelling unit including basements.

R315.3.1 Multiple-purpose alarms. Carbon monoxide alarms combined with smoke alarms shall comply with Section R315, all applicable standards, and requirements for listing and approval by the Office of the State Fire Marshall, for smoke alarms.

SECTION R316
FOAM PLASTIC

R316.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the materials, design, application, construction and installation of foam plastic materials.

R316.2 Labeling and identification. Packages and containers of foam plastic insulation and foam plastic insulation components delivered to the job site shall bear the label of an approved agency showing the manufacturer's name, the product listing, product identification and information sufficient to determine that the use will comply with the requirements.

R316.3 Surface burning characteristics. Unless otherwise allowed in Section R316.5 or R316.6, all foam plastic or foam plastic cores used as a component in manufactured assemblies used in building construction shall have a flame spread index of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Loose-fill type foam plastic insulation shall be tested as board stock for the flame spread index and smoke-developed index.

Exception: Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick shall have a maximum flame spread index of 75 and a smoke-developed index of 450 where tested at a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm), provided the end use is approved in accordance with Section R316.6 using the thickness and density intended for use.

R316.4 Thermal barrier. Unless otherwise allowed in Section R316.5 or Section R316.6, foam plastic shall be separated from the interior of a building by an approved thermal barrier of minimum ½ inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or an approved finish material equivalent to a thermal barrier material that will limit the average temperature rise of the unexposed surface to no more than 250°F (139°C) after 15 minutes of fire exposure complying with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 standard time temperature curve. The thermal barrier shall be installed in such a manner that it will remain in place for 15 minutes based on NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Section R 302.9.4, FM 4880, UL 1040 or UL 1715.

R316.5 Specific requirements. The following requirements shall apply to these uses of foam plastic unless specifically approved in accordance with Section R316.6 or by other sections of the code or the requirements of Sections R316.2 through R316.4 have been met.

R316.5.1 Masonry or concrete construction. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required in a masonry or concrete wall, floor or roof when the foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) thickness of masonry or concrete.

97

R316.5.2 Roofing. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required when the foam plastic in a roof assembly or under a roof covering is installed in accordance with the code and the manufacturer′;s installation instructions and is separated from the interior of the building by tongue-and-groove wood planks or wood structural panel sheathing in accordance with Section R803, not less than 15/32 inch (11.9 mm) thick bonded with exterior glue and identified as Exposure 1, with edges supported by blocking or tongue-and-groove joints or an equivalent material. The smoke-developed index for roof applications shall not be limited.

R316.5.3 Attics. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where all of the following apply:

  1. Attic access is required by Section R807.1.
  2. The space is entered only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
  3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:
    1. 1½-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;
    2. ¼-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels;
    3. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard;
    4. ¼-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard;
    5. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or
    6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm).

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.

R316.5.4 Crawl spaces. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where all of the following apply:

  1. Crawlspace access is required by Section R408.4
  2. Entry is made only for purposes of repairs of maintenance.
  3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:
    1. 1½-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;
    2. ¼-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels;
    3. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard;
    4. ¼-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard; or
    5. 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or
    6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm).

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.

R316.5.5 Foam-filled exterior doors. Foam-filled exterior doors are exempt from the requirements of Sections R316.3 and R316.4.

R316.5.6 Foam-filled garage doors. Foam-filled garage doors in attached or detached garages are exempt from the requirements of Sections R316.3 and R316.4.

R316.5.7 Foam backer board. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where siding backer board foam plastic insulation has a maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m2) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259 provided that:

  1. The foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of mineral fiber insulation or
  2. The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding or
  3. The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.

R316.5.8 Re-siding. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where the foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding provided the foam plastic has a maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m2) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259.

R316.5.9 Interior trim. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required for exposed foam plastic interior trim, provided all of the following are met:

  1. The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).
  2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width is 8 inches (204 mm).
  3. The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any room or space.
  4. The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTME 84. The smoke-developed index is not limited.

R316.5.10 Interior finish. Foam plastics shall be permitted as interior finish where approved in accordance with Section R316.6 Foam plastics that are used as interior finish shall also meet the flame spread index and smoke-developed index requirements of Section R302.9.1 and R302.9.2.

R316.5.11 Sill plates and headers. Foam plastic shall be permitted to be spray applied to a sill plate and header with out the thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 subject to all of the following:

  1. The maximum thickness of the foam plastic shall be 3¼ inches (83 mm).98
  2. The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m3).
  3. The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and an accompanying smoke developed index of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

R316.5.12 Sheathing. Foam plastic insulation used as sheathing shall comply with Section R316.3 and Section R316.4. Where the foam plastic sheathing is exposed to the attic space at a gable or kneewall, the provisions of Section R316.5.3 shall apply.

R316.6 Specific approval. Foam plastic not meeting the requirements of Section R316.3 through R316.5 shall be specifically approved on the basis of one of the following approvedtests: NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Section R302.9.4, FM 4880, UL 723, UL 1040 or UL 1715, or fire tests related to actual end-use configurations. The specific approval shall be based on the actual end use configuration and shall be performed on the finished foam plastic assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use. Assemblies tested shall include seams, joints and other typical details used in the installation of the assembly and shall be tested in the manner intended for use.

R316.7 Termite damage. The use of foam plastics in areas of “very heavy” termite infestation probability shall be in accordance with Section R318.4.

SECTION R317
PROTECTION OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST DECAY

R317.1 Location required. Protection of wood and wood based products from decay shall be provided in the following locations by the use of naturally durable wood or wood that is preservation-treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1.

  1. Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation.
  2. All wood framing members that rest on concrete or masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground.
  3. Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with the ground unless separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier.
  4. The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than ½ inch (12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends.
  5. Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior of a building having clearance of less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured vertically from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs, and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather.
  6. Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
  7. Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.

R317.1.1 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches and drilled holes of preservative-treated wood shall be treated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4.

R317.1.2 Ground contact. All wood in contact with the ground, embedded in concrete in direct contact with the ground or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather that supports permanent structures intended for human occupancy shall be approved pressure-preservative-treated wood suitable for ground contact use, except intreated wood may be used where entirely below groundwater level or continuously submerged in fresh water.

R317.1.3 Geographical areas. In geographical areas where experience has demonstrated a specific need, approved naturally durable or pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be used for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances when those members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhand or other covering that would prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members. Depending on local experience, such members may include:

  1. Horizontal members such as girders, joists and decking.
  2. Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns.
  3. Both horizontal and vertical members.

R317.1.4 Wood columns. Wood columns shall be approved wood of natural decay resistance or approved pressure-preservative-treated wood.

Exceptions:

  1. Columns exposed to the weather or in basements when supported by concrete piers of metal pedestals projecting 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a concrete floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth and the earth is covered by an approved impervious moisture barrier.
  2. Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building when supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height more than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed earth and the earth is covered by an impervious moisture barrier.

R317.1.5 Exposed glued-laminated timbers. The portions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather and not properly protected by a roof, eave or similar covering shall be pressure treated with preservative, or be

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manufactured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

R317.2 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to the pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section R318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the product and that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee treated wood program.

R317.2.1 Required information. The required quality mark on each piece of pressure-preservative-treated lumber or plywood shall contain the following information:

  1. Identification of the treating plant.
  2. Type of preservative.
  3. The minimum preservative retention.
  4. End use for which the product was treated.
  5. Standard to which the product was treated.
  6. Identity of the approved inspection agency.
  7. The designation “Dry,” if applicable.

    Exception: Quality markson lumber less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) nominal thickness, or lumber less than nominal 1 inch by 5 inches (25.4 mm by 127 mm) or 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) or lumber 36 inches (914 mm) or less in length shall be applied by stamping the faces of exterior pieces or by end labeling not less than 25 percent of the pieces of a bundled unit.

R317.3 Fasteners and connectors in contact with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood. Fasteners and connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be in accordance with this section. The coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM A 153.

R317.3.1 Fasteners for preservative-treated wood. Fasteners for preservative-treated wood shall be of hot dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Coating types and weights for connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood shall be in accordance with the connector manufacturer’s recommandations. In the absence of manufacturer’s recommendations, a minimum of ASTM A 653 type G 185 zinc-coated galvanized steel, or equivalent, shall be used.

Exceptions:

  1. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) diameter or greater steel bolts.
  2. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.

R317.3.2 Fastenings for wood foundations. Fastenings for wood foundations shall be as required in AF&PA Technical Report No. 7.

R317.3.3 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations. Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivers shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.

R317.3.4 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior applications. Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior locations shall be in accordance with the manufacturer′; recommendations. In the absence of the manufacturer′; recommendations, Section R317.3.3 shall apply.

R317.4 Wood/plastic composites. Wood/plastic composites used in exterior deck boards, stair treads, handrails and guard-rail systems shall bear a label indicating the required performance levels and demonstrating compliance with the provisions of ASTM D 7032.

R317.4.1 Wood/plastic composites shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction.

SECTION R318
PROTECTION AGAINST SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES

R318.1 Subterranean termite control methods. In areas subject to damage from termites as indicated by Table R301.2(1), methods of protection shall be one of the following methods or a combination of these methods:

  1. Chemical termiticide treatment, as provided in Section R318.2.
  2. Termite baiting system installed and maintained according to the label.
  3. Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with the provisions of Section R317.1.
  4. Naturally durable termite-resistant wood.
  5. Physical barriers as provided in Section R318.3 and used in locations as specified in Section R318.1.
  6. Cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Sections R505.2.1 and R603.2.1.

R318.1.1 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section R318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection agency which maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the product and which has been approved by an accreditation body which complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee treated wood program.

R318.1.2 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches, and drilled holes of pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be retreated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4.

R318.2 Chemical termiticide treatment. Chemical termiticide treatment shall include soil treatment and/or field applied wood treatment. The concentration, rate of application

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and method of treatment of the chemical termiticide shall be in strict accordance with the termiticide label.

R318.3 Barriers. Approved Physical barriers, such as metal or plastic sheeting or collars specifically designed for termite prevention, shall be installed in a manner to prevent termites from entering the structure. Shields placed on top of an exterior foundation wall are permitted to be used only if in combination with another method of protection.

R318.4 Foam plastic protection. In areas where the probability of termite infestation is “very heavy” as indicated in Figure R301.2(6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, polyisocyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on the exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls or slab foundations located below grade. The clearance between foam plastics installed above grade. and exposed earth shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings where the structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.
  2. When in addition to the requirements of Section R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is used.
  3. On the interior side of basement walls.

SECTION R319
SITE ADDRESS

R319.1 Address numbers. Buildings shall have approved address numbers, building numbers or approved building identification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum stroke width of ½inch (12.7 mm). Where access is by means of a private road and the building address cannot be viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be used to identify the structure.

SECTION R320
ACCESSIBILITY

R320.1 Scope. Dwelling units in a building consisting of three or more dwelling units or four or more condominium units shall meet the requirements of the California Building Code Chapter 11A. Covered Multifamily Dwellings include but are not limited to dwelling units listed in Section 1.8.1.1.2. Dwelling units within a single structure separated by firewalls do not constitute separate buildings.

SECTION R321
ELEVATORS AND PLATFORM LIFTS

R321.1 Elevators. Where provided, passenger elevators, limited-use/limited-application elevators or private residence elevators shall comply with ASME A17.1.

R321.2 Platform lifts. Where provided, platform lifts shall comply with ASME A18.1.

R321.3 Accessibility. Elevators or platform (wheelchair) lifts that are part of an accessible route required by Chapter 11A of the California Building Code, shall comply with ASME A 17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, Title 8, of the California Code of Regulations, under “Elevator Safety Orders”; ASME A 18.1, Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chair Lifts; the State of California, the Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Occupational Safety and Health, and any applicable safety regulations of other administrative authorities having jurisdiction. See Section 1124A of the California Building Code for additional information.

SECTION R322
FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

R322.1 General. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) as established in Table R301.2(1)shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions contained in this section.

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or in part in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.

R322.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and structures located in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas (V Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein.

R322.1.2 Structural systems. All structural systems of all buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral movement due to structural loads and stresses from flooding equal to the design flood elevation.

R322.1.3 Flood-resistant construction. All buildings and structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damage.

R322.1.4 Establishing the design flood elevation. The design flood elevation shall be used to define areas prone to flooding. At a minimum, the design flood elevation is the higher of:

  1. The base flood elevation at the depth of peak elevation of flooding (including wave height) which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year, or
  2. The elevation of the design flood associated with the area designated on a flood hazard map adopted by the community, or otherwise legally designated.
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R322.1.4.1 Determination of design flood elevations. If design flood elevations are not specified, the building official is authorized to require the applicant to:

  1. Obtain and reasonably use data available from a federal, state or other source; or
  2. Determine the design flood elevation in accordance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic engineering practices used to define special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken by a registered design professional who shall document that the technical methods used reflect currently accepted engineering practice. Studies, analyses and computations shall be submitted in sufficient detail to allow through review and approval.

R322.1.4.2 Determination of impacts. In riverine flood hazard areas where design flood elevations are specified but floodways have not been designated, the applicant shall demonstrate that the effect of the proposed buildings and structures on design flood elevations, including fill, when combined with all other existing and anticipated flood hazard area encroachments, will not increase the design flood elevation more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the jurisdiction.

R322.1.5 Lowest floor. The lowest floor shall be the floor of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but excluding any unfinished flood-resistant enclosure that is useable solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the building or structure in violation of this section.

R322.1.6 Protection of mechanical and electrical systems. Electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall be located at or above the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones). If replaced as part of a substantial improvement, electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning and plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall meet the requirements of this section. Systems, fixtures, and equipment and components shall not be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break away under flood loads.

Exception: Locating electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other serviceequipment is permitted below the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas Including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas Including V Zones) provided that they are designed and installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components and to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence, of flooding to the design flood elevation in accordance with ASCE 24. Electrical wiring systems are permitted to be located below the required elevation provided they conform to the provisions of the California Electrical Code for wet locations.

R322.1.7 Protection of water supply and sanitary sewage systems. Water supply shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the water supply and distribution system. Sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into sanitary drainage systems and discharges from sanitary drainage systems into floodwaters.

R322.1.8 Flood-resistant materials. Building materials used below the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones) shall comply with the following:

  1. All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product, preservative and end use or be the decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, black locust or cedars. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1.
  2. Materials and installation methods used for flooring and interior and exterior walls and wall coverings shall conform to the provisions of FEMA/FIA-TB-2.

R322.1.10 As-built elevation documentation. A registered design professional shall prepare and seal documentation of the elevations specified in Section R322.2 or R322.3.

R322.2 Flood hazard areas (including A Zones). All areas that have been determined to be prone to flooding but not subject to high velocity wave action shall be designated as flood hazard areas. Flood hazard areas that have been delineated as subject to wave heights between 1½ feet (457 mm) and 3 feet (914 mm) shall be designated as Coastal A Zones. All building and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections R322.2.1 through R322.2.3.

R322.2.1 Elevation requirements.

  1. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas not designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the design flood elevation.
  2. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or to the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
  3. In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings and structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated at least as high above the highest adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (610 mm) if a depth number is not specified.
  4. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall be elevated to or above the design flood elevation.

Exception: Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation, including basements whose floors are not below

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grade on all sides, shall meet the requirements of Section R322.2.2.

R322.2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation. Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the design flood elevation shall:

  1. Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.
  2. Be provided with flood openings that meet the following criteria:
    1. There shall be a minimum of two openings on different sides of each enclosed area; if a building has more than one enclosed area below the design flood elevation, each area shall have openings on exterior walls.
    2. The total net area of all openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 mm2) for each square foot (0.093 m2) of enclosed area, or the openings shall be designed and the construction documents shall include a statement by a registered design professional that the design of the openings will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters as specified in Section 2.6.2.2 of ASCE 24.
    3. The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot (305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground level.
    4. Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in any direction in the plane of the wall.
    5. Any louvers, screens or other opening covers shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters into and out of the enclosed area.
    6. Openings installed in doors and windows, that meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are acceptable; however, doors and windows without installed openings do not meet the requirements of this section.

R322.2.3 Foundation design and construction. Foundation walls for all buildings and structures erected in flood hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4.

Exception: Unless designed in accordance with Section R404:

  1. The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 3 feet (914 mm).
  2. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 4 feet (1219 mm).
  3. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) reinforced masonry walls shall be no more than 8 feet (2438 mm).

For the purpose of this exception, unsupported height is the distance from the finished grade of the under-floor space and the top of the wall.

R322.3 Coastal high-hazard areas (including V Zones).

Areas that have been determined to be subject to wave heights in excess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high-velocity wave action or wave-induced crosion shall be designated as coastal high-hazard areas. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections R322.3.1 through R322.3.6.

R322.3.1 Location and site preparation.

  1. New buildings and buildings that are determined to be substantially improved pursuant to Section R105.3.1.1, shall be located landward of the reach of mean high tide.
  2. For any alteration of sand dunes and mangrove stands the building official Shall require submission of an engineering analysis which demonstrates that the proposed alteration will not increase the potential for flood damage.

R322.3.2 Elevation requirements.

  1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal high hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest portion of all structural members supporting the lowest floor, with the exception of mat or raft foundations, piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and bracing, is:
    1. Located at or above the design flood elevation, if the lowest horizontal structural member is oriented parallel to the direction of wave approach, where parallel shall mean less than or equal to 20 degrees (0.35 rad) from the direction of approach, or
    2. Located at the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher, if the lowest horizontal structural member is oriented perpendicular to the direction of wave approach, where perpendicular shall mean greater than 20 degrees (0.35 rad) from the direction of approach.
  2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are prohibited.
  3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited.
  4. Minor grading, and the placement of minor quantities of fill, shall be permitted for landscaping and for drainage purposes under and around buildings and for support of parking slabs, pool decks, patios and walk-ways.

Exception: Walls and partitions enclosing areas below the design flood elevation shall meet the requirements of Sections R322.3.4 and R322.3.5.

R322.3.3 Foundations. Buildings and structures erected in coastal high-hazard areas shall be supported on pilings or columns and shall be adequately anchored to those pilings or columns. Pilings shall have adequate soil penetrations to resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral and uplift). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by

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this code. Pile embedment shall include consideration of decreased resistance capacity caused by scour of soil strata surrounding the piling. Pile systems design and installation shall be certified in accordance with Section R322.3.6. Mat, raft or other foundations that support columns shall not be permitted where soil investigations that are required in accordance with Section R401.4 indicate that soil material under the mat, raft or other foundation is subject to scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions. Slabs, pools, pool decks and walkways shall be located and constructed to be structurally independent of buildings and structures and their foundations to prevent transfer of flood loads to the buildings and structures during conditions of flooding, scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions, unless the buildings and structures and their foundation are designed to resist the additional flood load.

R322.3.4 Walls below design flood elevation. Walls and partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural support of the building or structure and:

  1. Electrical, mechanical, and plumbing system components are not to be mounted on or penetrate through walls that are designed to break away under flood loads; and
  2. Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice; or
  3. Are designed to break away or collapse without causing collapse, displacement or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. Such walls, framing and connections shall have a design safe loading resistance of not less than 10 (479 Pa) and no more than 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa); or
  4. Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), the construction documents shall include documentation prepared and sealed by a registered design professional that:
    1. The walls and partitions below the design flood elevation have been designed to collapse from a water load less than that which would occur during the design flood.
    2. The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system have been designed to withstand the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously on all building components (structural and nonstructual). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by this code.

R322.3.5 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation.Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.

R322.3.6 Construction documents. The construction documents shall include documentation that is prepared and sealed by a registered design professional that the design and methods of construction to be used meet the applicable criteria of this section.

SECTION R323
STORM SHELTERS

R323.1 General. This section applies to the construction of storm shelters when constructed as separate detached buildings or when constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. In addition to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance with ICC/NSSA-500.

SECTION R324
RESERVED

SECTION R325
SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LICENSED 24-HOUR CARE FACILITIES IN GROUP R-3.1

R325.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 24-hour care facilities in a Group R-3.1 occupancy licensed by a governmental agency.

R325.2 General. The provisions in this section shall apply in addition to general requirements in this code.

R325.2.1 Restrainst shall not be practiced in a Group R-3.1 occupancy.

Exception: Occupancies which meet all the requirements for a Group I-3 occupancy.

R325.2.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regulations of the state fire marshal pertaining to Occupancies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residential-Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is inconsistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by the state fire marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geological, or topographical conditions relating to roof coverings for Residential-Care Facilities for the Elderly.

Exception: Local regulations relating to roof coverings in facilities licensed as a Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) per Health and Safety Code Section 13133.

R325.3 Building height and area provisions.

R325.3.1 Limitations six or less clients. Group R-3.1 occupancies where clients are housed above the first story, having more than two stories in height or having more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) of floor area above the first story

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shall not be of less than one-hour fire-resistance-rated construction throughout.

In Group R-3.1 occupanices housing a bedridden client, the client sleeping room shall not be located above or below the first story.

Exception:Clients who become bedridden as a result of a temporary illness as defined in Health and Safety Code Sections 1566.45, 1568.0832 and 1569.72. A temporary illness is an illness which persists for 14 days or less. A bedridden client may be retained in excess of the 14 days upon approval by the Department of Social Services and may continue to be housed on any story in a Group R-3.1 occupancy classified as a licensed residential facility.

Every licensee admitting or retaining a bedridden resident shall, within 48 hours of the resident’s admission or retention in the facility, notify the local fire authority with jurisdiction of the estimated length of time the resident will retain his or her bedridden status in the facility.

R325.3.2. Buildings housing protective social- care homes or in occupancies housing inmates who are not restrained need not be of one-hour fire-resistive construction when not more than two stories in height. In no case shall individual floor areas exceed 3,000 square feet (279m2). The fire-resistive protection of the exterior walls shall not be less than one hour where such walls are located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the property line. Openings within such walls are not permitted. Openings in exterior non-rated walls need not be protected.

R325.4 Interior finish provisions.

R325.4.1 Interior wall and ceiling finish. Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client shall comply with Interior Wall and Ceilding Finish requirements specified for Group I-2 occupancies in Table 803.5 of the California Building code.

R325.5 Fire protection system provisions.

R325.5.1 Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R-3.1 occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed where required in Section 313.

Exceptions:

  1. Existing Group R-3.1 occupancies coverted to Group R-3.1 occupancies not housing bedridden clients, not housing nonambulatory clients above the first floor, and not housing clients above the second floor.
  2. Existing Group R-3 occupancies converted to Group R-3.1 occupancies housing only one bedridden client and complying with Section R325.6.3.3.
  3. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13113 existing occupancies housing ambulatory children only, none of whom are mentally ill or mentally retarded, and the buildings or portions thereof in which such children are housed are not more than two stories in height, and buildings or portions thereof housing such children have an automatic fire alarm system activated by approved smoke detectors.
  4. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6 existing occupancies licensed for protective social care which house ambulatory clients only, none of whom is a child (under the age of 18 years), or who is elderly (65 years of age or over).

R325.5.2 Smoke alarms in Group R-3.1 occupancies.Smoke alarms shall be installed where required in Section 314. In addition to the provisions set forth in Section R314 the following shall apply:

  1. Smoke alarms shall be provided throughout the habitable areas of the dwelling unit except kitchens.
  2. Facilities housing a bedridden client:
    1. Smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup.
    2. Smoke alarms shall be electrically interconnected so as to cause all smoke alarms to sound a distinctive alarm signal upon actuation of any single smoke alarm. Such alarm signal shall be audible throughout the facility at a minimal level of 15 db above ambient noise level. These devices need not be interconnected to any other fire alarm device, have a control panel, or be electrically supervised or provided with emergency power.

R325.5.2.1 Audible alarm signal. The audible signal shall be the standard fire alarm evacuation signal, ANSI S3.41 Audible Emergency Evacuation Signal, “three pulse temporal pattern,” as described in NFPA 72.

R325.5.2.2 Hearing impaired. See Section 907.9.1 of the California Building Code.

R325.5.2.3 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.5 of the California Building Codes.

Exceptions:

  1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system in installed.
  2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in enclosed exit stairways, exterior exit stairs and exterior exit ramps.
  3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

R325.5.2.4 Protective social care facilities in Group R-3.1. Protective social care facilities which house persons who are hearing impaired shall be provided with notification appliances for the hearing impaired.

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installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and which shall activated upon initiation of the fire alarm system or the smoke alarms.

Exception: The use of the existing evacuation signaling scheme shall be permitted where approved by the enforcing agency.

R325.6 Means of egress provisions.

R325.6.1 General. In addition to the general means of egress requirements of Chapter 10 of the California Building Code, this section shall apply to Group R-3.1 occupancies.

R325.6.2 Number of exits.

R325.6.2.1 Group R-3.1 occupancies shall have a minimum of two exits.

R325.6.3 Egress arrangements.

R325.6.3.1 Egress through adjoining dwelling units shall not be permitted.

R325.6.3.2 Group R-3.1 occupancies housing nonambulatory clients. In a Group R-3.1 occupancy, bedrooms used by nonambulatory clients shall have access to at least one of the required exits which shall conform to one of the following:

  1. Egress through a hallway or area into a bedroom in the immediate area which has an exit directly to the exterior and the corridor/hallway is constructed consistent with the dwelling unit interior walls. The hallway shall be separated from common areas by a solid wood door not less than 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) in thickness, maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 715.4.7 of the California Building Code.
  2. Egress through a hallway which has an exit directly to the exterior. The hallway shall be separated from the rest of the house by a wall constructed consistent with the dwelling unit interior walls and opening protected by a solid wood door not less than 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) in thickness, maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 715.4.7 of the California Building Code.
  3. Direct exit from the bedroom to the exterior, such doors shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. When installed, doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall be so mounted that the clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches (813 mm).
  4. Egress through an adjoining bedroom which exits to the exterior.

R325.6.3.3 Group R-3.1 occupancies housing only one bedridden client. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client and not provided with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system, all of the following shall apply:

  1. In Group R-3.1 Occupancies housing a bedridden client, a direct exit to the exterior of the residence shall be provided from the client sleeping room.
  2. Doors to a bedridden client's sleeping room shall be of a self-closing, positive latching 1 3/8-inch solid wood door. Such doors shall be provided with a gasket so installed as to provide a seal where the door meets the jam on both sides and across the top. Doors shall be maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.7 of the California Building Code.
  3. Group R-3.1 Occupancies housing a bedridden client, shall not have a night latch, dead bolt, security chain or any similar locking device installed on any interior door leading from a bedridden client's sleeping room to any interior area such as a corridor, hallway and or general use areas of the residence in accordance with Chapter 10 of the California Building Code.
  4. The exterior exit door to a bedridden client's sleeping room shall be operable from both the interior and exterior of the residence.
  5. Every required exit doorway from a bedridden client sleeping room shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. When installed in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall be so mounted that the clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches (813 mm).

Note: A sliding glass door can be used as an exterior exit doorway as long as it is operable from the inside and outside and the clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches (813 mm).

R325.6.3.4 Intervening rooms. A means of exit shall not pass through more than one intervening room. A means of egress shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, closets, garages or spaces used for similar purposes.

Exception: Kitchens which do not form separate rooms by construction.

R325.6.4 Changes in level. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing nonambulatory clients interior changes in level up to 0.25 inch (6 mm) may be vertical and without edge treatment. Changes in level between 0.25 inch (6 mm) and 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% slope). Changes in level greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) shall be accomplished by means of a ramp.

R325.6.5 Stairways. Group R-3.1 occupancies may continue to use existing stairways (except for winding and spiral stairways which are not permitted as a required means of egress) provided the stairs have a maximum rise of 8 inches

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(203 mm) with a minimum run of 9 inches (229 mm). The minimum stairway width may be 30 inches (762 mm).

R325.6.6 Floor separation. Group R-3.1 occupancies shall be provided with a nonfire resistance constructed floor separation at stairs which will prevent smoke migration between floors. Such floor separation shall have equivalent construction of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard on one side of wall framing.

Exceptions:

  1. Occupancies with at least one exterior exit from floors occupied by clients.
  2. Occupancies provided with automatic fire sprinkler systems complying with Chapter 9.

R325.6.6.1 Doors within floor separations. Doors within such floor separations shall be tight fitting solid wood at least 1 3/8 inches (35 mm) in thickness. Door glazing shall not exceed 1296 square inches (32 918 mm2) with no dimension greater than 54 inches (1372 mm). Such doors shall be positive latching, smoke gasketed and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection.

R325.6.7 Fences and gates. Grounds of a Residential Care for the Elderly facility serving Alzheimer clients may be fenced and gates therein equipped with locks, provided safe dispersal areas are located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the buildings. Dispersal areas shall be sized to provide an area of not less than 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per occupant. Gates shall not be installed across corridors or passageways leading to such dispersal areas unless they comply with egress requirements.

R325.6.8 Basement exits. One exit is required to grade level when the basement is accessible to clients.

R325.6.9 Delayed egress locks. See Section 1008.1.8.6 of the California Building Code.

R325.7 Request for alternate means of protection for facilities housing bedridden clients. Request for alternate means of protection shall apply to Sections R325 through R325.7. Request for approval to use an alternative material, assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment or means of protection shall be made in writing to the local fire authority having jurisdiction by the facility, client or the client’s authorized representative. Sufficient evidence shall be submitted to substantiate the need for an alternate means of protection.

The facility, client or the client’s representative or the local fire authority having jurisdiction may request a written opinion from the State Fire Marshal concerning the interpretation of the regulations promulgated by the State Fire Marshal for a particular factual dispute. The State Fire Marshal shall issue the written opinion within 45 days following the request.

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment or means of protection made pursuant to this section shall be limited to Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client.

Approvals made by the local fire authority having jurisdiction and the written opinion by the State Fire Marshal shall be applicable only to the requesting facility and shall not be construed as establishing any precedent for any future request by that facility or any other facility.

R325.8 Temporarily bedridden clients. Clients who become temporarily bedridden as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1569.72, as enforced by the Department of Social Services, may continue to be housed on any story in Group R-3.1 occupancies classified as Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE). Every Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) admitting or retaining a bedridden resident shall, within 48 hours of the resident’s admission or retention in the facility, notify the local fire authority with jurisdiction of the estimated length of time the resident will retain his or her bedridden status in the facility.

SECTION R326
LARGE FAMILY DAY-CARE HOMES

R326.1 Large family day-care homes.

R326.2 For purposes of clarification, Health and Safety Code Section 1597.46 is repeated.

  1. A city, county, or city and county shall not prohibit large family day-care homes on lots zoned for single-family dwellings, but shall do one of the following:
    1. Classify these homes as a permitted use of residential property for zoning purposes.
    2. Grant a nondiscretionary permit to use a lot zoned for a single-family dwelling to any large family day-care home that complies with local ordinances prescribing reasonable standards, restrictions and requirements concerning spacing and concentration, traffic control, parking and noise control relating to such homes, and complies with subdivision (d) and any regulations adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to that subdivision. Any noise standards shall be consistent with local noise ordinances implementing the noise element of the general plan and shall take into consideration the noise level generated by children. The permit issued pursuant to this paragraph shall be granted by the zoning administrator, if any, or if there is no zoning administrator by the person or persons designated by the planning agency to grant such permits, upon the certification without a hearing.
    3. Require any large family day care home to apply for a permit to use a lot zoned for single-family dwellings. The zoning administrator, if any, or if there is no zoning administrator, the person or persons designated by the planning agency to handle the use permits shall review and decide the applications. The use permit shall be granted if the large family day-care home complies with local ordinances, if any, prescribing reasonable standards, restrictions and requirements concerning spacing and concentration, traffic control, parking and noise control relating to such homes, and complies with subdivision (d) and any regulations adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to that subdivision. 107

      Any noise standards shall be consistent with local noise ordinances implementing the noise element of the general plan and shall take into consideration the noise levels generated by children.

      The local government shall process any required permit as economically as possible, and fees charged for review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit process. Not less than 10 days prior to the date on which the decision will be made on the application, the zoning administrator or person designated to handle such use permits shall give notice of the proposed use by mail or delivery to all owners shown on the last equalized assessment roll as owning real property within a 100 foot radius of the exterior boundaries of the proposed large family day care home. No hearing on the application for a permit issued pursuant to this paragraph shall be held before a decision is made unless a hearing is requested by the applicant or other affected person. The applicant or other affected person may appeal the decision. The appellant shall pay the cost, if any of the appeal.

  2. A large family day-care home shall not be subject to the provisions of Division 13 (commencing with Section 21000) of the Public Resources Code.
  3. Use of a single-family dwelling for the purposes of a large family day-care home shall not constitute a change of occupancy for purposes of Part 1.5 (commencing with Section 17910) of Division 13 (State Housing Law), or for purposes of local building and fire codes.
  4. Large family day-care homes shall be considered as single-family residences for the purposes of the State Uniform Building Standards Code and local building and fire codes, except with respect to any additional standards specifically designed to promote the fire and life safety of the children in these homes adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to this subdivision.

R326.3 Smoke alarms. Large family day-care homes shall be equipped with State Fire Marshal approved and listed single station residential type smoke alarms. The number and placement of smoke alarms shall be determined by the enforcement authority.

R326.4 Fire extinguishers. Large and small family day-care homes shall be equipped with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 2A10BC rating.

R326.5 Fire alarm devices. Every large family day-care home shall be provided with at least one manual device at a location approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Such device shall actuate a fire alarm signal, which shall be audible throughout the facility at a minimum level of 15 db above ambient noise level. These devices need not be interconnected to any other fire alarm device, have a control panel or be electrically supervised or provided with emergency power. Such device or devices shall be attached to the structure and may be of any type acceptable to the enforcing agent, provided that such devices are distinctive in tone and are audible throughout the structure.

R326.6 Compliance. Every large-family day-care home shall comply with the provisions for Group R-3 occupancies and, if appropriate, Section 326.1. For the purposes of Section 326.1, the first story shall be designated as the floor used for residential occupancy nearest to the street level which provides primary access to the building.

Enforcement of the provisions shall be in accordance with the Health and Safety Code Sections 13145 and 13146. No city, county, city and county, or district shall adopt or enforce any building ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to the subject of fire and life safety in large-family day-care homes which is inconsistent with those standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal, except to the extent the building ordinance or local rule or regulation applies to single-family residences in which day care is not provided.

R326.7 Special hazards. Every unenclosed gas-fired water heater or furnace which is within the area used for child care in a large family day-care home shall be protected in such a way as to prevent children from making contact with those appliances.

Exception: This does not apply to kitchen stoves or ovens.

R326.8 Exiting. Every story or basement of a large family day-care home shall be provided with two exits which are remotely located from each other. Every required exit shall be of a size to permit the installation of a door not less than 32 inches (813 mm) in clear width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. A manually operated horizontal sliding door may be used as one of the two required exits.

Where basements are used for day-care purposes, one of the two required exits shall provide access directly to the exterior without entering the first story. The second exit from the basement may either pass through the story above or exit directly to the exterior.

Rooms used for day-care purposes shall not be located above the first story.

Exception: Buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout and which have at least one of the required exits providing access directly to the exterior. NFPA 13R may be used in large family day-care homes. The sprinkler omissions of NFPA 13R shall not apply unless approved by the enforcing agency.

Exit doors, including manually operated horizontal sliding doors, shall be openable from the inside without use of a key or any special knowledge or effort.

SECTION R327
MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR EXTERIOR WILDFIRE EXPOSURE

SECTION R327.1
SCOPE, PURPOSE AND APPLICATION

R327.1.1 Scope. This chapter applies to building materials, systems and or assemblies used in the exterior design and construction of new buildings located within a Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area as defined in Section R327.2.

R327.1.2 Purpose. The purpose of this Chapter is to establish minimum standards for the protection of life and prop-

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erty by increasing the ability of a building located in any Fire Hazard Severity Zone within State Responsibility Areas or any Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area to resist the intrusion of flame or burning embers projected by a vegetation fire and contributes to a systematic reduction in conflagration losses.

R327.1.3. Application. New buildings located in any Fire Hazard Severity Zone or any Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area designated by the enforcing agency constructed after the application date shall comply with the provisions of this chapter.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings of an accessory character classified as a Group U occupancy and not exceeding 120 square feet in floor area, when located at least 30 feet from an applicable building.
  2. Buildings of an accessory character classified as Group U occupancy of any size located least 50 feet from an applicable building.
  3. Buildings classified as a Group U Agricultural Building, as defined in Section 202 of this code (see also Appendix C - Group U Agricultural Buildings), when located at least 50 feet from an applicable building.
  4. Additions to and remodels of buildings originally constructed prior to the applicable application date.

R327.1.3.1 Application date and where required. New buildings for which an application for a building permit is submitted on or after July 1, 2008 located in any Fire Hazard Severity Zone or Wildland Interface Fire Area shall comply with all sections of this chapter, including all of the following areas:

  1. All unincorporated lands designated by the State Board of Forestry and Fire Protection as State Responsibility Area (SRA) including:
    1. Moderate Fire Hazard Severity Zones
    2. High Fire Hazard Severity Zones
    3. Very-High Fire Hazard Severity Zones
  2. Land designated as Very-High Fire Hazard Severity Zone by cities and other local agencies.
  3. Land designated as Wildland Interface Fire Area by cities and other local agencies.

    Exceptions:

    1. New buildings located in any Fire Hazard Severity Zone within State Responsibility Areas, for which an application for a building permit is submitted on or after January 1, 2008, shall comply with all sections of this chapter.
    2. New buildings located in any Fire Hazard Severity Zone within State Responsibility Areas or any Wildland Interface Fire Area designated by cities and other local agencies for which an application for a building permit is submitted on or after December 1, 2005 but prior to July 1, 2008 shall only comply with the following sections of this chapter:
      1. Section R327.5– Roofing
      2. Section R327.6–Vents

R327.1.4 Inspection and certification. Building permit applications and final completion approvals for buildings within the scope and application of this chapter shall comply with the following:

  1. Building permit issuance. The local building official shall, prior to construction, provide the owner or applicant a certification that the building as proposed to be built complies with all applicable state and local building standards, including those for materials and construction methods for wildfire exposure as described in this chapter. Issuance of a building permit by the local building official for the proposed building shall be considered as complying with this section.
  2. Building permit final. The local building official shall, upon completion of construction, provide the owner or applicant with a copy of the final inspection report that demonstrates the building was constructed in compliance with all applicable state and local building standards, including those for materials and construction methods for wildfire exposure as described in this Chapter. Issuance of a certificate of occupancy by the local building official for the proposed building shall be considered as complying with this section.

R327.1.5 Vegetation management compliance. Prior to building permit final approval, the property shall be in compliance with the vegetation management requirements prescribed in California Fire Code section 4906, including California Public Resources Code 4291 or California Government Code Section 51182. Acceptable methods of compliance inspection and documentation shall be determined by the enforcing agency and may include any of the following:

  1. Local, state or federal fire authority or designee authorized to enforce vegetation management requirements
  2. Enforcing agency
  3. Third-party inspection and certification authorized to enforce vegetation management requirements
  4. Property owner certification authorized by the enforcing agency
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SECTION R327.2
DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this chapter, certain terms are defined below:

CDF DIRECTOR means the Director of the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection.

EXTERIOR COVERING. The exposed siding or cladding material applied to the exterior side of an exterior wall, roof eave soffit, floor projection or exposed underfloor framing.

FIRE PROTECTION PLAN is a document prepared for a specific project or development proposed for a Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area. It describes ways to minimize and mitigate potential for loss from wildfire exposure. The Fire Protection Plan shall be in accordance with this chapter and the California Fire Code, Chapter 49. When required by the enforcing agency for the purposes of granting modifications, a fire protection plan shall be submitted. Only locally adopted ordinances that have been filed with the California Building Standards Commission or the Department of Housing and Community Development in accordance with Section 1.1.8 shall apply.

FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY ZONES are geographical areas designated pursuant to California Public Resources Codes Sections 4201 through 4204 and classified as Very-High, High or Moderate in State Responsibility Areas or as Local Agency Very-High Fire Hazard Severity Zones designated pursuant to California Government Code Sections 51175 through 51189. See California Fire Code Article 86.

The California Code of Regulations, Title 14, Section 1280 entitles the maps of these geographical areas as “Maps of the Fire Hazard Severity Zones in the State Responsibility Area of California.”

HEAVY TIMBER. A type of construction classification specified in Section 602 of the California Building Code. For use in this chapter, heavy timber shall be sawn lumber or glue laminated wood with the smallest minimum nominal dimension of 4 inches (102 mm). Heavy timber walls or floors shall be sawn or glue-laminated planks splined, tongue-and-grove, or set close together and well spiked.

IGNITION-RESISTANT MATERIAL A type of building material that resists ignition or sustained flaming combustion sufficiently so as to reduce losses from wildland-urban interface conflagrations under worst-case weather and fuel conditions with wildfire exposure of burning embers and small flames, as prescribed in Section R327.3 and SFM Standard 12-7A-5, Ignition-Resistant Material.

LOCAL AGENCY VERY-HIGH FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY ZONE means an area designated by a local agency upon the recommendation of the CDF Director pursuant to Government Code Sections 51177(c), 51178 and 5118 that is not a state responsibility area and where a local agency, city, county, city and county, or district is responsible for fire protection.

LOG WALL CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction in which exterior walls are constructed of solid wood members and where the smallest horizontal dimension of each solid wood member is at least 6 inches (152 mm).

RAFTER TAIL. The portion of roof rafter framing in a sloping roof assembly that projects beyond and overhangs an exterior wall.

ROOF EAVE. The lower portion of a sloping roof assembly that projects beyond and overhangs an exterior wall at the lower end of the rafter tails. Roof eaves may be either “open” or “enclosed.” Open roof eaves have exposed rafter tails and an unenclosed space on the underside of the roof deck. Enclosed roof eaves have a boxed-in roof eave soffit with a horizontal underside or sloping rafter tails with an exterior covering applied to the underside of the rafter tails.

ROOF EAVE SOFFIT. An enclosed boxed-in soffit under a roof eave with exterior covering material applied to the soffit framing creating a horizontal surface on the exposed underside.

STATE RESPONSIBILITY AREA means lands that are classified by the Board of Forestry pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 4125 where the financial responsibility of preventing and suppressing forest fires is primarily the responsibility of the state.

WILDFIRE is any uncontrolled fire spreading through vegetative fuels that threatens to destroy life, property or resources as defined in Public Resources Code Sections 4103 and 4104.

WILDFIRE EXPOSURE is one or a combination of radiant heat, convective heat, direct flame contact and burning embers being projected by vegetation fire to a structure and its immediate environment.

WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE FIRE AREA is a geographical area identified by the state as a “Fire Hazard Severity Zone” in accordance with the Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204 and Government Code Sections 51175 through 51189, or other areas designated by the enforcing agency to be at a significant risk from wildfires.

SECTION R327.3
STANDARDS OF QUALITY

R327.3.1 General. Building material, systems, assemblies and methods of construction used in this chapter shall be in accordance with Section R327.3.

R327.3.2 Qualification by testing. Material and material assemblies tested in accordance with the requirements of Section R327.3 shall be accepted for use when the results and conditions of those tests are met. Product evaluation testing of material and material assemblies shall be approved or listed by the State Fire Marshal, or identified in a current report issued by an approved agency.

R327.3.3 Approved agency. Product evaluation testing shall be performed by an approved agency as defined in Section 1702 of the California Building Code. The scope of accreditation for the approved agency shall include building product compliance with code.

R327.3.4 Labeling. Material and material assemblies tested in accordance with the requirements of section R327.3 shall bear an identification label showing the fire test results. That identification label shall be issued by a

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testing and/or inspecting agency approved by the State Fire Marshal.

  1. Identification mark of the approved testing and/or inspecting agency.
  2. Contact and identification information of the manufacturer
  3. Model number or identification of the product or material
  4. Pre-test weathering specified in this chapter
  5. Compliance standard as described under Section R327.3.7

R327.3.5 Weathering and surface treatment protection.

R327.3.5.1 General. Material and material assemblies tested in accordance with the requirements of Section R327.3 shall maintain their fire test performance under conditions of use when installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

R327.3.5.2 Weathering. Fire-retardant-treated wood and fire-retardant-treated wood shingles and shakes shall meet the fire test performance requirements of this chapter after being subjected to the weathering conditions contained in the following standards, as applicable to the materials and the conditions of use.

R327.3.5.2.1 Fire-retardant-treated wood. Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D 2898, “Standard Practice for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant Treated Wood for Fire Testing (Method A)” and the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the California Building Code.

R327.3.5.2.2 Fire-retardant-treated wood shingles and shakes. Fire-retardant-treated wood shingles and shakes shall be approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal in accordance with Section 208(c), Title 19 California Code of Regulations.

R327.3.5.3 Surface treatment protection. The use of paints, coatings, stains or other surface treatments are not an approved method of protection as required in this section.

R327.3.6 Alternates for materials, design, tests and methods of construction. The enforcing agency is permitted to modify the provisions of this chapter for site-specific conditions in accordance with Section 1.11.2.4. When required by the enforcing agency for the purposes of granting modifications, a fire protection plan shall be submitted in accordance with the California Fire Code, Chapter 49.

R327.3.7 Standards of quality. The State Fire Marshal standards for exterior wildfire exposure protection listed below and as referenced in this chapter are located in the California Reference Standards Code, Part 12 and Chapter 44 of this code.

SFM Standard 12-7A-1, Exterior Wall Siding and Sheathing. A fire resistance test standard consisting of a 150 kW intensity direct flame exposure for a 10 minutes duration.

SFM Standard 12-7A-2, Exterior Windows. A fire resistance test standard consisting of a 150 kW intensity direct flame exposure for a 8 minutes duration.

SFM Standard 12-7A-3, Horizontal Projection Under-side. A fire resistance test standard consisting of a 300 kW intensity direct flame exposure for a 10 minute duration.

SFM Standard 12-7A-4, Decking. A two-part test consisting of a heat release rate (Part A) deck assembly combustion test with an under deck exposure of 80 kW intensity direct flame for a 3 minute duration, and a (Part B) sustained deck assembly combustion test consisting of a deck upper surface burning ember exposure with a 12 mph wind for 40 minutes using a 2.2lb (1 kg) burning “Class A” size 12 inch x 12 inch x 2.25inch (300 mm x 300 mm x 57mm) roof test brand.

SFM Standard 12-7A-4A, Decking Alternate Method A. A heat release rate deck assembly combustion test with an under deck exposure of 80 kW intensity direct flame for a 3 minute duration,

SFM Standard 12-7A-5, Ignition-resistant Material. A generic building material surface burning flame spread test standard consisting of an extended 30 minute ASTM E 84 or UL 723 test method as is used for Fire-Retardant-Treated wood.

SECTION R327.4
IGNITION RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

R327.4.1 General. The materials prescribed herein for ignition resistance shall conform to the requirements of this chapter.

R327.4.2 Ignition-resistant material. Ignition-resistant material shall be determined in accordance with the test procedures set forth in SFM Standard 12-7A-5 “Ignition-Resistant Material” or in accordance with this section.

R327.4.3 Alternative methods for determining ignition-resistant material. Any one of the following shall be accepted as meeting the definition of ignition-resistant material:

  1. Noncombustible material. Material that complies with the definition for noncombustible materials in Section R202.
  2. Fire-retardant-treated wood. Fire-retardant-treated wood identified for exterior use that complies with the requirements of Section 2303.2 of the California Building Code.
  3. Fire-retardant-treated wood shingles and shakes. Fire-retardant-treated wood shingles and shakes, as defined in Section 1505.6 of the California Building Code and listed by State Fire Marshal for use as “Class B” roof covering, shall be accepted as an ignition 111 resistant wall covering material when installed over solid sheathing.

SECTION R327.5
ROOFING

R327.5.1 General. Roofs shall comply with the requirements of Sections R327 and R902. Roofs shall have a roofing assembly installed in accordance with its listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

R327.5.2 Roof coverings. Where the roof profile allows a space between the roof covering and roof decking, the spaces shall be constructed to prevent the intrusion of flames and embers, be firestopped with approved materials or have one layer of minimum 72 pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 3909 installed over the combustible decking.

R327.5.3 Roof valleys. Where valley flashing is installed, the flashing shall be not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) No. 26 gage galvanized sheet corrosion-resistant metal installed over not less than one layer of minimum 72-pound (32.4 kg) mineral-surfaced nonperforated cap sheet complying with ASTM D 3909, at least 36-inch-wide (914 mm) running the full length of the valley.

R327.5.4 Roof gutters. Roof gutters shall be provided with the means to prevent the accumulation of leaves and debris in the gutter.

SECTION R327.6
VENTS

R327.6.1 General. Where provided, ventilation openings for enclosed attics, enclosed eave soffit spaces, enclosed rafter spaces formed where ceilings are applied directly to the underside of roof rafters, and underfloor ventilation shall be in accordance with Section 1203 of the California Building Code and Sections R327.6.1 through R327.6.3 of this section to resist building ignition from the intrusion of burning embers and flame through the ventilation openings.

R327.6.2 Requirements. Ventilation openings for enclosed attics, enclosed eave soffit spaces, enclosed rafter spaces formed where ceilings are applied directly to the underside of roof rafters, and underfloor ventilation openings shall be fully covered with metal wire mesh, vents, other materials or other devices that meet the following requirements:

  1. The dimensions of the openings therein shall be a minimum of 1/16th inch (1.6 mm) and shall not exceed 1/8th inch (3.2mm).
  2. The materials used shall be noncombustible.

    Exception: Vents located under the roof covering, along the ridge of roofs, with the exposed surface of the vent covered by noncombustible wire mesh, may be of combustible materials.

  3. The materials used shall be corrosion resistant.

R327.6.3 Ventilation openings on the underside of eaves and cornices: Vents shall not be installed on the underside of eaves and cornices.

Exceptions:

  1. The enforcing agency may accept or approve special eave and cornice vents that resist the intrusion of flame and burning embers.
  2. Vents complying with the requirements of Section R327.6.2 may be installed on the underside of eaves and cornices in accordance with either one of the following conditions:
    1. The attic space being ventilated is fully protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the California Building Code or,
    2. The exterior wall covering and exposed underside of the eave are of noncombustible material, or ignition-resistant-materials as determined in accordance with SFM Standard 12-7A-5 Ignition-Resistant Material and the vent is located more than 12 feet from the ground or walking surface of a deck, porch, patio, or similar surface.

SECTION R327.7
EXTERIOR COVERING

R327.7.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the materials and construction methods used to resist building ignition and/or safeguard against the intrusion of flames resulting from small ember and short-term direct flame contact exposure.

R327.7.2 General. The following exterior covering materials and/or assemblies shall comply with this section:

  1. Exterior wall covering material
  2. Exterior wall assembly
  3. Exterior exposed underside of roof eave overhangs
  4. Exterior exposed underside of roof eave soffits
  5. Exposed underside of exterior porch ceilings
  6. Exterior exposed underside of floor projections
  7. Exterior underfloor areas

Exceptions:

  1. Exterior wall architectural trim, embellishments, fascias, and gutters
  2. Roof or wall top cornice projections and similar assemblies
  3. Roof assembly projections over gable end walls112
  4. Solid wood rafter tails and solid wood blocking installed between rafters having minimum dimension 2 inch (50.8 mm) nominal
  5. Deck walking surfaces shall comply with Section R327.9 only

R327.7.3. Exterior walls. The exterior wall covering or wall assembly shall comply with one of the following requirements:

  1. Noncombustible material
  2. Ignition-resistant material
  3. Heavy-timber exterior wall assembly
  4. Log wall construction assembly
  5. Wall assemblies that meet the performance criteria in accordance with the test procedures for a 10-minute direct flame contact exposure test set forth in SFM Standard 12-7A-1.

Exceptions: Any of the following shall be deemed to meet the assembly performance criteria and intent of this section:

  1. One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum sheathing applied behind the exterior covering or cladding on the exterior side of the framing.
  2. The exterior portion of a 1-hour fire resistive exterior wall assembly designed for exterior fire exposure including assemblies using the gypsum panel and sheathing products listed in the Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual.

R327.7.3.1 Extent of exterior wall covering. Exterior wall coverings shall extend from the top of the foundation to the roof, and terminate at 2 inch (50.8 mm) nominal solid wood blocking between rafters at all roof overhangs, or in the case of enclosed eaves, terminate at the enclosure.

R327.7.4 Open roof eaves. The exposed roof deck on the underside of unenclosed roof eaves shall consist of one of the following:

  1. Noncombustible material
  2. Ignition-resistant material
  3. One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum sheathing applied behind an exterior covering on the underside exterior of the roof deck
  4. The exterior portion of a 1-hour fire resistive exterior wall assembly applied to the underside of the roof deck designed for exterior fire exposure including assemblies using the gypsum panel and sheathing products listed in the Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual

Exceptions: The following materials do not require protection:

  1. Solid wood rafter tails on the exposed underside of open roof eaves having a minimum nominal dimension of 2 inch (50.8 mm)
  2. Solid wood blocking installed between rafter tails on the exposed underside of open roof eaves having a minimum nominal dimension of 2 inch (50.8 mm)
  3. Gable end overhangs and roof assembly projections beyond an exterior wall other than at the lower end of the rafter tails
  4. Fascia and other architectural trim boards

R327.7.5 Enclosed roof eaves and roof eave soffits. The exposed underside of enclosed roof eaves having either a boxed-in roof eave soffit with a horizontal underside, or sloping rafter tails with an exterior covering applied to the underside of the rafter tails, shall be protected by one of the following:

  1. Noncombustible material
  2. Ignition-resistant material
  3. One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum sheathing applied behind an exterior covering on the underside of the rafter tails or soffit
  4. The exterior portion of a 1-hour fire resistive exterior wall assembly applied to the underside of the rafter tails or soffit including assemblies using the gypsum panel and sheathing products listed in the Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual
  5. Boxed-in roof eave soffit assemblies with a horizontal underside that meet the performance criteria in accordance with the test procedures set forth in SFM Standard 12-7A-3

Exceptions: The following materials do not require protection:

  1. Gable end overhangs and roof assembly projections beyond an exterior wall other than at the lower end of the rafter tails
  2. Fascia and other architectural trim boards

R327.7.6 Exterior porch ceilings. The exposed underside of exterior porch ceilings shall be protected by one of the following:

  1. Noncombustible material
  2. Ignition-resistant material
  3. One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum sheathing applied behind the exterior covering on the underside of the ceiling
  4. The exterior portion of a 1-hour fire resistive exterior wall assembly applied to the underside of the ceiling assembly including assemblies using the gypsum panel and sheathing products listed in the Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual
  5. Porch ceiling assemblies with a horizontal underside that meet the performance criteria in accordance with the test procedures set forth in SFM Standard 12-7A-3

Exception: Architectural trim boards.

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R327.7.7 Floor projections. The exposed underside of a cantilevered floor projection where a floor assembly extends over an exterior wall shall be protected by one of the following:

  1. Noncombustible material
  2. Ignition-resistant material
  3. One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum sheathing applied behind an exterior covering on the underside of the floor projection
  4. The exterior portion of a 1-hour fire resistive exterior wall assembly applied to the underside of the floor projection including assemblies using the gypsum panel and sheathing products listed in the Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual
  5. The underside of a floor projection assembly that meet the performance criteria in accordance with the test procedures set forth in SFM Standard 12-7A-3

Exception: Architectural trim boards.

R327.7.8. Underfloor protection. The underfloor area of elevated or overhanging buildings shall be enclosed to grade in accordance with the requirements of this chapter or the underside of the exposed underfloor shall consist of one of the following:

  1. Noncombustible material
  2. Ignition-resistant material
  3. One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum sheathing applied behind an exterior covering on the underside of the floor projection
  4. The exterior portion of a 1-hour fire resistive exterior wall assembly applied to the underside of the floor including assemblies using the gypsum panel and sheathing products listed in the Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual
  5. The underside of a floor assembly that meets the performance criteria in accordance with the test procedures set forth in SFM Standard 12-7A-3

Exception: Heavy-timber structural columns and beams do not require protection.

R327.7.9 Underside of appendages. When required by the enforcing agency the underside of overhanging appendages shall be enclosed to grade in accordance with the requirements of this chapter or the underside of the exposed underfloor shall consist of one of the following:

  1. Noncombustible material
  2. Ignition-resistant material
  3. One layer of 5/8-inch Type X gypsum sheathing applied behind an exterior covering on the underside of the floor projection
  4. The exterior portion of a 1-hour fire resistive exterior wall assembly applied to the underside of the floor including assemblies using the gypsum panel and sheathing products listed in the Gypsum Association Fire Resistance Design Manual
  5. The underside of a floor assembly that meets the performance criteria in accordance with the test procedures set forth in SFM Standard 12-7A-3

Exception: Heavy-timber structural columns and beams do not require protection.

SECTION R327.8
EXTERIOR WINDOWS AND DOORS

R327.8.1 General.

R327.8.2 Exterior glazing. The following exterior glazing materials and/or assemblies shall comply with this section:

  1. Exterior windows
  2. Exterior glazed doors
  3. Glazed openings within exterior doors
  4. Glazed openings within exterior garage doors
  5. Exterior structural glass veneer

R327.8.2.1 Exterior windows and exterior glazed door assembly requirements. Exterior windows and exterior glazed door assemblies shall comply with one of the following requirements:

1. Be constructed of multipane glazing with a minimum of one tempered pane meeting the requirements of Section 2406 Safety Glazing, or

2. Be constructed of glass block units, or

3. Have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 20 minutes when tested according to NFPA 257, or

5. Be tested to meet the performance requirements of SFM Standard 12-7A-2.

R327.8.2.2 Structural glass veneer. The wall assembly behind structural glass veneer shall comply with Section R327.7.3

R327.8.3 Exterior doors. Exterior doors shall comply with one of the following:

  1. The exterior surface or cladding shall be of noncombustible or ignition-resistant material, or
  2. Shall be constructed of solid core wood that comply with the following requirements:
    1. Stiles and rails shall not be less than 1 3/8 inches thick
    2. Raised panels shall not be less than 1 1/4 inches thick, except for the exterior perimeter of the raised panel that may taper to a tongue not less than 3/8 inch thick.
  3. Shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 20 minutes when tested according to NFPA 252.
  4. Shall be tested to meet the performance requirements of SFM standard 12-7A-1.

R327.8.3.1 Exterior door glazing. Glazing in exterior doors shall comply with Section R327.8.2.1.

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SECTION R327.9
DECKING

R327.9.1 General. The walking surface material of decks, porches, balconies and stairs shall comply with the requirements of this section.

R327.9.2 Where required. The walking surface material of decks, porches, balconies and stairs shall comply with the requirements of this section when any portion of such surface is within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building.

R327.9.3 Decking surfaces. The walking surface material of decks, porches, balconies and stairs shall be constructed with one of the following materials:

  1. Ignition-resistant material that complies with the performance requirements of both SFM Standard 12-7A-4 and SFM Standard 12-7A-5
  2. Exterior fire retardant treated wood
  3. Noncombustible material
  4. Any material that complies with the performance requirements of SFM Standard 12-7A-4A when attached exterior wall covering is also either noncombustible or ignition-resistant material

Exception: Wall material may be of any material that otherwise complies with this chapter when the decking surface material complies with the performance requirements ASTM E 84 with a Class B flame spread rating.

SECTION R327.10
ACCESSORY STRUCTURES

R327.10.1 General. Accessory and miscellaneous structures, other than buildings covered by Section R327.1.3. which pose a significant exterior exposure hazard to applicable buildings during wildfires shall be constructed to conform to the ignition resistance requirements of this section.

R327.10.2 Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply to trellises, arbors, patio covers, carports, gazebos and similar structures of an accessory or miscellaneous character.

Exceptions:

  1. Decks shall comply with the requirements of Section R327.9
  2. Awnings and canopies shall comply with the requirements of Section 3105 of the California Building Code.

R327.10.3 Where required. Accessory structures shall comply with the requirements of this section.

R327.10.3.1 Attached accessory structures shall comply with the requirements of this section.

R327.10.3.2 When required by the enforcing agency, detached accessory structures within 50 feet of an applicable building shall comply with the requirements of this section.

R327.10.4. Requirements. When required by the enforcing agency accessory structures shall be constructed of noncombustible or ignition-resistant materials.

SECTION R328
ELECTRIC VEHICLE

R328.1 Electric vehicle. An automotive-type vehicle for highway use, such as passenger automobiles, buses, trucks, vans and the like, primarily powered by an electric motor that draws current from a rechargeable storage battery, fuel cell, photovoltaic array or other source of electric current. For the purposes of this chapter, electric motorcycles and similar type vehicles and off-road self-propelled electric vehicles such as industrial trucks, hoists, lifts, transports, golf carts, airline ground support equipment, tractors, boats and the like, are not included.

R328.2 Charging. In any building or interior area used for charging electric vehicle, electrical equipment shall be installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code.

R328.3 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation, when required by the California Electrical Code shall be provided at a rate as required by Article 625 or as required by Section 1203 of the California Building Code whichever is greater. The ventilation system shall include both the supply and exhaust equipment and shall be permanently installed and located to intake supply air from the outdoors, and vent the exhaust directly to, the outdoors without conducting the exhaust air through other spaces within the building.

Exception: Positive pressure ventilation systems shall only be allowed in buildings or areas that have been designed and approved for that application.

R328.4 Electrical interface. The electrical supply circuit to electrically powered mechanical ventilation equipment shall be interlocked with the recharging equipment used to supply the vehicle(s) being charged, and shall remain energized during the entire charging cycle. Electric vehicle recharging equipment shall be marked or labeled in accordance with the California Electrical Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Exhaust ventilation shall not be required in areas with an approved engineered ventilation system, which maintains a hydrogen gas concentration at less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit.
  2. Mechanical exhaust ventilation for hydrogen shall not be required where the charging equipment utilized is installed and listed for indoor charging of electric vehicles without ventilation.
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CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL CODE–MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CALIFORNIA CHAPTER 4–FOUNDATIONS
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS 1 2 3 4
Adopt entire chapter                                      
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)     X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below                                      
Chapter/Section                                      
R401.2     X X                              
R401.4.1.1 through R401.4.1.1.3     X X                              
R403.1.8     X X                              
R404.5.1     X X                              
R408.3     X X                              
R408.4     X X                              
117 118

CHAPTER 4 FOUNDATIONS

SECTION R401
GENERAL

R401.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the foundation and foundation spaces for all buildings. In addition to the provisions of this chapter, the design and construction of foundations in areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1) shall meet the provisions of Section R322. Wood foundations shall be designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA PWF.

Exception: The provisions of this chapter shall be permitted to be used for wood foundations only in the following situations:

  1. In buildings that have no more than two floors and a roof.
  2. When interior basement and foundation walls are constructed at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm).

Wood foundations in Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2 shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R401.2 Requirements. Foundation construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads according to Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting soil. Fill soils that support footings and foundations shall be designed, installed and tested in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Gravel fill used as footings for wood and precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section R403.

Note: See Section R301.1.1.1 for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings.

R401.3 Drainage. Surface drainage shall be diverted to a storm sewer conveyance or other approved point of collection that does not create a hazard. Lots shall be graded to drain surface water away from foundation walls. The grade shall fall a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) within the first 10 feet (3048 mm).

Exception: Where lot lines, walls, slopes or other physical barriers prohibit 6 inches (152 mm) of fall within 10 feet (3048 mm), drains or swales shall be constructed to ensure drainage away from the structure. Impervious surfaces within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foundation shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent away from the building.

R401.4 Soil tests. Where quantifiable data created by accepted soil science methodologies indicate expansive, compressible, shifting or other questionable soil characteristics are likely to be present, the building official shall determine whether to require a soil test to determine the soil’s characteristics at a particular location. This test shall be done by an approved agency using an approved method.

R401.4.1 Geotechnical evaluation. In lieu of a complete geotechnical evaluation, the load-bearing values in Table R401.4.1 shall be assumed.

TABLE R401.4.1
PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF FOUNDATION MATERIALSa
CLASS OF MATERIAL LOAD-BEARING PRESSURE (pounds per square foot)
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. When soil tests are required by Section R401.4, the allowable bearing capacities of the soil shall be part of the recommendations.
b. Where the building official determines, that in-places soils with an allowable bearing capacity of less than 1,500 psf are likely to be present at the site, the allowable bearing capacity shall be determined by a soils investigation.
Crystalline bedrock 12,000
Sedimentary and foliated rock 4,000
Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GW and GP) 3,000
Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty gravel and clayey gravel (SW, SP, SM, SC, GM and GC) 2,000
Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt (CL, ML, MH and CH) 1,500b

R401.4.1.1 General and where required for applications listed in Section 1.8.1.1.1 regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. Foundations and soils investigations shall be conducted in conformance with Health and Safety Code Sections 17953 through 17955 as summarized below.

R401.4.1.1.1 Preliminary soil report. Each city, county, or city and county shall enact on ordinance which required a preliminary soil report, prepared by a civil engineer who is registered by the state. The report shall be based upon adequate test borings or excavations, of every subdivision, where a tentative and final map is required pursuant to Section 66426 of the Government Code.

The preliminary soil report may be waived if the building department of the city, county, or city and county, or other enforcement agency charged with the administration and enforcement of the provisions of this part, shall determine that, due to the knowledge such department has as to the soil qualities of the soil of the subdivision or lot, no preliminary analysis is necessary.

R401.4.1.1.2 Soil investigation by lot, necessity, preparation and recommendations. If the preliminary soil report indicates the presence of critically expansive soils or other soil problems which, if not corrected, would lead to structural defects, such ordinance shall require a soil investigation of each lot in the subdivision.

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The soil investigation shall be prepared by a civil engineer who is registered in this state. It shall recommend corrective action which is likely to prevent structural damage to each dwelling proposed to be constructed on the expansive soil.

R401.4.1.1.3 Approval, building permit conditions, appeal. The building department of each city, county, or city and county or other enforcement agency charged with the administration and enforcement of the provisions of this part, shall approve the soil investigation if it determines that the recommended action is likely to prevent structural damage to each dwelling to be constructed. As a condition to the building permit, the ordinance shall require that the approved recommended action be incorporated in the construction of each dwelling. Appeal from such determination shall be to the local appeals board.

R401.4.2 Compressible or shifting soil. Instead of a complete geotechnical evaluation, when top or subsoils are compressible or shifting, they shall be removed to a depth and width sufficient to assure stable moisture content in each active zone and shall not be used as fill or stabilized within each active zone by chemical, dewatering or presaturation.

SECTION R402
MATERIALS

R402.1 Wood foundations. Wood foundation systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code.

R402.1.1 Fasteners. Fasteners used below grade to attach plywood to the exterior side of exterior basement or crawl space wall studs, or fasteners used in knee wall construction, shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel. Fasteners used above grade to attach plywood and all lumber-to-lumber fasteners except those used in knee wall construction shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel, silicon bronze, copper, hot-dipped galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails, or hot-tumbled galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails. Electro galvanized steel nails and galvanized (zinc coated) steel staples shall not be permitted.

R402.1.2 Wood treatment. All lumber and plywood shall be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited agency. Where lumber and/or plywood is cut or drilled after treatment, the treated surface shall be field treated with copper naphthenate, the concentration of which shall contain a minimum of 2 percent copper metal, by repeated brushing, dipping or soaking until the wood absorbs no more preservative.

R402.2 Concrete. Concrete shall have a minimum specified compressive strength of f’c, as shown in Table R402.2. Concrete subject to moderate or sever weathering as indicated in Table R301.2(1) shall be air entrained as specified in Table R402.2. The maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans, silica fume, slag or blended cements that is included in concrete mixtures for garage floor slabs and for exterior porches, carport slabs and steps that will be exposed to deicing chemicals shall not exceed the percentages of the total weight of cementitious materials specified in Section 4.2.3 of ACI 318. Materials used to produce concrete and testing thereof shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Chapter 3 of ACI 318 or ACI 332.

R402.3 Precast concrete. Precast concrete foundations shall be designed in accordance with Section R404.5 and shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

R402.3.1 Precast concrete foundation materials. Materials used to produce precast concrete foundations shall meet the following requirements.

  1. All concrete used in the manufacture of precast concrete foundations shall have a minimum compressive strength of 5,000 psi (34 470 kPa) at 28 days. Concrete exposed to a freezing and thawing environment shall be air entrained with a minimum total air content of 5 percent.
TABLE R402.2
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHa(f’c)
Weathering Potentialb
Negligible Moderate Severe
For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Strength at 28 days psi.
b. See Table R301.2(1) for weathering potential.
c. Concrete in these locations that may be subject to freezing and thawing during construction shall be air-entrarioned concrete in accordance with Footnote d.
d. Concrete shall be air-entrained. Total air content (percent by volume of concrete) shall be not less than 5 percent or more than 7 percent.
e. See Section R402.2 for maximum cementitious materials content.
f. For garage floors with a steel troweled finish, reduction of the total air content (percent by volume of concrete) to not less than 3 percent is permitted if the specified compressive strength of the concrete is increased to not less than 4,000 psi.
Basement walls, foundations and other concrete not exposed to the weather 2,500 2,500 2,500c
Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except garage floor slabs 2,500 2,500 2,500c
Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical concrete work exposed to the weather 2,500 3,000d 3,000d
Porches, carport slabs and steps exposed to the weather, and garage floor slabs 2,500 3,000d, e, f 3,500d, e, f
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  1. Structural reinforcing steel shall meet the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706 or A 996. The minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). Steel reinforcement for precast concrete foundation walls shall have a minimum concrete foundation walls shall have a minimum concrete cover of ¾ inch (19.1 mm).
  2. Panel-to-panel connections shall be made with Grade II steel fasteners.
  3. The use of nonstructural fibers shall conform to ASTM C 1116.
  4. Grout used for bedding precast foundations placed upon concrete footings shall meet ASTM C 1107.

SECTION R403
FOOTINGS

R403.1 General. All exterior walls shall be supported on continuous solid or fully grouted masonry or concrete footings, crushed stone footings, wood foundations, or other approved structural systems which shall be of sufficient design to accommodate all loads according to Section R301 and to transmit the resulting loads to the soil within the limitations as determined from the character of the soil. Footings shall be supported on undisturbed natural soils or engineered fill. Concrete footing shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section R403 or in accordance with ACI 332.

TABLE R403.1
MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE, PRECAST OR MASONRY FOOTINGS (inches)a
  LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf)
1,500 2,000 3,000 ≥ 4,000
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Where minimum footing width is 12 inches, use of a single wythe of solid or fully grouted 12-inch nominal concrete masonry units is permitted.
Conventional light-frame construction
1-story 12 12 12 12
2-story 15 12 12 12
3-story 23 17 12 12
4-inch brick veneer over light frame or 8-inch hollow concrete masonry
1-story 12 12 12 12
2-story 21 16 12 12
3-story 32 24 16 12
8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry
1-story 16 12 12 12
2-story 29 21 14 12
3-story 42 32 21 16

R403.1.1 Minimum size. Minimum sizes for concrete and masonry footings shall be as set forth in Table R403.1 and Figure R403.1 (1). The footing width, W, shall be based on the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table R401.4.1. Spread footings shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness, T. Footing projections, P, shall be at least 2 inches (51 mm) and shall not exceed the thickness of the footing. The size of footings supporting piers and columns shall be based on the tributary load and allowable soil pressure in accordance with Table R401.4.1. Footings for wood foundations shall be in accordance with the details set forth in Section R403.2, and Figures R403.1(2) and R403.1 (3).

R403.1.2 Continuous footing in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2. The braced wall panels at exterior walls of buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall be supported by continuous footings. All required interior braced wall panels in buildings with plan dimensions greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall also be supported by continuous footings.

R403.1.3 Seismic reinforcing. Concrete footings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, as established in Table R301.2 (1), shall have minimum reinforcement. Bottom reinforcement shall be located a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) clear from the bottom of the footing.

In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 where a construction joint is created between a concrete footing and a stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be installed at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The vertical bar shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the footing, have a standard hook and extend a minimum of 14 inches (357 mm) into the stem wall.

In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 where a grouted masonry stem wall is supported on a concrete footing and stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be installed at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The vertical bar shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the footing and have a standard hook.

In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 masonry stem walls without solid grout and vertical reinforcing are not permitted.

Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings which are three stories or less in height and constructed with stud bearing walls, plain concrete footings without longitudinal reinforcement supporting walls and isolated plain concrete footings supporting columns or pedestals are permitted.

R403.1.3.1 Foundations with stemwalls. Foundations with stem walls shall have installed a minimum of one No. 4 bar within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall and one No. 4 bar located 3 inches (76 mm) to 4 inches (102 mm) from the bottom of the footing.

R403.1.3.2 Slabs-on-ground with turned-down footings. Slabs on ground with turned down footings shall have a minimum of one No. 4 bar at the top and the bottom of the footing.

Exception: For slabs-on-ground cast monolithically with the footing, locating one No. 5 bar or two No. 4 bars in the middle third of the footing depth shall be permitted as an alternative to placement at the footing top and bottom.

Where the slab is not cast monolithically with the footing, No. 3 or larger vertical dowels with standard hooks on each end shall be provided in accordance with Figure R403.1.3.2. Standard hooks shall comply with Section R611.5.4.5.

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FIGURE R403.1(1) CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS

FIGURE R403.1(1)
CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS

122

FIGURE R403.1(2) PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION

FIGURE R403.1(2)
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION

123

FIGURE R403.1(3) PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION

FIGURE R403.1(3)
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION

FIGURE R403.1.3.2 DOWELS FOR SLABS-ON-GROUND WITH TURNED-DOWN FOOTINGS

FIGURE R403.1.3.2
DOWELS FOR SLABS-ON-GROUND WITH TURNED-DOWN FOOTINGS

124

R403.1.4 Minimum depth. All exterior footings shall be placed at least 12 inches (305 mm) below the undisturbed ground surface. Where applicable, the depth of footings shall also conform to Sections R403.1.4.1 through R403.1.4.2.

R403.1.4.1 Frost protection. Except where otherwise protected from frost, foundation walls, piers and other permanent supports of buildings and structures shall be protected from frost by one or more of the following methods:

  1. Extended below the frost line specified in Table R301.2.(1);
  2. Constructing in accordance with Section R403.3;
  3. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or
  4. Erected on solid rock.

Exceptions:

  1. Protection of freestanding accessory structures with an area of 600 square feet (56 m2) or less, of light-frame construction, with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be required.
  2. Protection of freestanding accessory structures with an area of 400 square feet (37 m2) or less, of other than light-frame construction, with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be required.
  3. Decks not supported by a dwelling need not be provided with footings that extend below the frost line.

Footings shall not bear on frozen soil unless the frozen condition is permanent.

R403.1.4.2 Seismic conditions. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, interior footings supporting bearing or bracing walls and cast monolithically with a slab on grade shall extend to a depth of not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the top of the slab.

R403.1.5 Slope. The top surface of footings shall be level. The bottom surface of footings shall not have a slope exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is necessary to change the elevation of the top surface of the footings or where the slope of the bottom surface of the footings will exceed one unit vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent slope).

R403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. Sill plates and walls supported directly on continuous foundations shall be anchored to the foundation in accordance with this section.

Wood sole plates at all exterior walls on monolithic slabs, wood sole plates of braced wall panels at building interiors on monolithic slabs and all wood sill plates shall be anchored to the foundation with anchor bolts spaced a maximum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on center. Bolts shall be at least ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter and shall extend a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or grouted cells of concrete masonry units. A nut and washer shall be tightened on each anchor bolt. There shall be a minimum of two bolts per plate section with one bolt located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than seven bolt diameters from each end of the plate section. Interior bearing wall sole plates on monolithic slab foundation that are not part of a braced wall panel shall be positively anchored with approved fasteners. Sill plates and sole plates shall be protected against decay and termites where required by Sections R317 and R318. Cold-formed steel framing systems shall be fastened to wood sill plates or anchored directly to the foundation as required in Section R505.3.1 or R603.3.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Foundation anchorage, spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to ½-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) anchor bolts.
  2. Walls 24 inches (610 mm) total length or shorter connecting offset braced wall panels shall be anchored to the foundation with a minimum of one anchor bolt located in the center third of the plate section and shall be attached to adjacent braced wall panels at corners as shown in Figure R602.10.4.4(1).
  3. Connection of walls 12 inches (305 mm) total length or shorter connecting offset braced wall panels to the foundation without anchor bolts shall be permitted. The wall shall be attached to adjacent braced wall panels at corners as shown in Figure R602.10.4.4(1).

R403.1.6.1 Foundation anchorage in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2. In addition to the requirements of Section R403.1.6, the following requirements shall apply to wood light-frame structures in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 and wood light-frame townhouses in Seismic Design Category C.

  1. Plate washers conforming to Section R602.11.1 shall be provided for all anchor bolts over the full length of required braced wall lines except where approved anchor straps are used. Properly sized cut washers shall be permitted for anchor bolts in wall lines not containing braced wall panels.
  2. Interior braced wall plates shall have anchor bolts spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ends of each plate section when supported on a continuous foundation.
  3. Interior bearing wall sole plates shall have anchor bolts spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ends of each plate section when supported on a continuous foundation.
  4. The maximum anchor bolt spacing shall be 4 feet (1219 mm) for buildings over two stories in height.
  5. Stepped cripple walls shall conform to Section R602.11.2.
  6. Where continuous wood foundations in accordance with Section R404.2 are used, the force transfer shall have a capacity equal to or greater than the connections required by Section 125 R602.11.1 or the braced wall panel shall be connected to the wood foundations in accordance with the braced wall panel-to-floor fastening requirements of Table R602.3(1).

R403.1.7 Footings on or adjacent to slopes. The placement of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes steeper than one unit vertical in three units horizontal (33.3-percent slope) shall conform to Sections R403.1.7.1 through R403.1.7.4.

R403.1.7.1 Building clearances from ascending slopes. In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient distance from the slope to provide protection from slope drainage, erosion and shallow failures. Except as provided in Section R403.1.7.4 and Figure R403.1.7.4.provide this protection. Where the existing slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to the slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from the top of the wall to the top of the slope.

R403.1.7.2 Footing setback from descending slope surfaces. Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall be founded in material with an embedment and setback from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and lateral support for the footing without detrimental settlement. Except as provided for in Section R403.1.7.4 and Figure R403.1.7.1, the following setback is deemed adequate to meet the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the required setback shall be measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal, projected upward from the toe of the slope.

R403.1.7.3 Foundation elevation.On graded sites, the top of any exterior foundation shall extend above the elevation of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet of an approveddrainage device a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are permitted subject to the approval of the building official, provided it can be demonstrated that required drainage to the point of discharge and away from the structure is provided at all locations on the site.

R403.1.7.4 Alternate setback and clearances. Alternate setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to the approval of the building official. The building official is permitted to require an investigation and recommendation of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that the intent of this section has been satisfied. Such an investigation shall include consideration of material, height of slope, slope gradient, load intensity and erosion characteristics of slope material.

R403.1.8 Foundations on expansive soils. Foundation and floor slabs for buildings located on expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with Section 1808.6of the California Building Code.

Exception: Slab-on-ground and other foundation systems which have performed adequately in soil conditions similar to those encountered at the building site are permitted subject to the approval of the building official.

R403.1.8.1 Expansive soils classifications. Soils meeting all four of the following provisions shall be compliance with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test prescribed in Item 4 is conducted:

  1. Plasticity Index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in accordance with ASTM D 4318.
  2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No. 200 sieve (75 µm), determined in accordance with ASTM D 422.
  3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less than 5 micrometers in size, determined in accordance with ASTM D 422.
  4. Expansion Index greater than 20, determined in accordance with ASTM D 4829.

FIGURE R403.1.7.1 FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES

FIGURE R403.1.7.1
FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES

126

R403.2 Footings for wood foundations. Footings for wood foundations shall be in accordance with Figures R403.1(2) and R403.1(3). Gravel shall be washed and well graded. The maximum size stone shall not exceed ¾inch (19.1 mm). Gravel shall be free from organic, clayer or silty soils. Sand shall be coarse, not smaller than 1/16-inch (1.6 mm) grains and shall be free from organic, clayer or silty soils. Crushed stone shall have a maximum size of ½ inch (12.7 mm).

R403.3 Frost protected shallow foundations. For buildings where the monthly mean temperature of the building is maintained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C), footings are not required to extend below the frost line when protected from frost by insulation in accordance with Figure R403.3(1) and Table R403.3(1). shall not be used for unheated spaces such as porches, utility rooms, garages and carports, and shall not be attached to basements or crawl spaces that are not maintained at a minimum monthly mean temperature of 64°F (18°C).

Materials used below grade for the purpose of insulating footings against frost shall be labeledas complying with ASTM C 578.

R403.3.1 Foundation adjoining frost protected shallow foundations. Foundations that adjoin frost protected shallow foundations shall be protected from frost in accordance with Section R403.1.4.

R403.3.1.1 Attachment to unheated slab-on-ground structure. Vertical wall insulation and horizontal insulation of frost protected shallow foundations that adjoin a slab-on-ground foundation that does not have a monthly mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C) shall be in accordance with Figure R403.3(3) and Table R403.3(1). Vertical wall insulation shall extend between the frost protected shallow foundation and the adjoining slab foundation. Required horizontal insulation shall be continuous under the adjoining slab foundation and through any foundation walls adjoining the frost protected shallow foundation. Where insulation passes through a foundation wall, it shall either be of a type complying with this section and having bearing loads imposed by the building, or the building shall be designed and constructed using beams, lintels, cantilevers or other means of transferring building loads such that the structural loads of the building do not bear on the insulation.

R403.3.1.2 Attachment to heated structure. Where a frost protected shallow foundation abuts a structure that has a monthly mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C), horizontal insulation and vertical wall insulation shall not be required between the frost protected shallow foundation and the adjoining structure. Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts the heated structure, the horizontal insulation and vertical wall insulation shall extend along the adjoining foundation in accordance with Figure R403.3(4) a distance of not less than Dimension A in Table R403.3(1).

Exception: Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts the heated structure to form an inside corner, vertical insulation extending along the adjoining foundation is not required.

R403.3.2 Protection of horizontal insulation below the ground. Horizontal insulation placed less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the ground surface or that portion of horizontal insulation extending outward more than 24 inches (610 mm) from the foundation edge shall be protected against damage by use of a concrete slab or asphalt paving on the ground surface directly above the insulation or by cementitious board, plywood rated for below-ground use, or other approved materials placed below ground, directly above the top surface of the insulation.

R403.3.3 Drainage. Final grade shall be sloped in accordance with Section R401.3. In other than Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1, gravel or crushed stone beneath horizontal insulation below ground shall drain to daylight or into an approved sewer system.

R403.3.4 Terminate damage. The use of foam plastic in areas of “very heavy” terminate infestation probability shall be in accordance with Section R318.4.

R403.4 Footings for percast concrete foundations. Footings for precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section R403.4.

R403.4.1 Crushed stone footings. Clean crushed stone shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall be angular in nature and meet ASTM C 33, with the maximum size stone not to exceed ½ inch (12.7 mm) and the minimum stone size not to be smaller than 1/16-inch (1.6 mm). Crushed stone footings for precast foundations shall be installed in accordance with Figure R403.4(1) and Table R403.4. Crushed stone footings shall be consolidated using a vibratory plate in a maximum of 8-inch lifts. Crushed stone footings shall be limited to Seismic Design Categories A, B and C.

R403.4.2 Concrete footings. Concrete footings shall be installed in accordance with Section R403.1 and Figure R403.4(2).

SECTION R404
FOUNDATION AND RETAINING WALLS

R404.1 Concrete and masonry foundation walls.Concrete foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section R404.1.2.Masonry foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section R404.1.1.

R404.1.1 Design of masonry foundation walls. Masonry foundation walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or in accordance with the provisions of ACI530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or NCMA TR68-A. When ACI530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, NCMA TR68-A or the provisions of this section are used to design masonry foundation walls, project drawings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the architect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority.

127

FIGURE R403.3(1) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS

FIGURE R403.3(1)
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS

TABLE R403.3(1)
MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH AND INSULATION REQUIREMENTS FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGSa
AIR FREEZING INDEX (°F-days)b MINIMUM
FOOTING DEPTH, D (Inches)
VERTICAL INSULATION R-VALUEc,d HORIZONTAL INSULATION R-VALUEc,e HORIZONTAL INSULATION DIMENSIONS PER FIGURE R403.3(1) (inches)
Along walls At corners A B C
a. Insulation requirements are for protection against frost damage in heated buildings. Greater values may be required to meet energy conservation standards.
b. See Figure R403.3(2) or Table R403.3(2) for Air Freezing Index values.
c. Insulation materials shall provide the stated minimum R-values under long-term exposure to moist, below-ground conditions in freezing climates. The following R-values shall be used to determine insulation thickness required for this application: Type II expanded polystyrene—2.4R per inch; Type IV extruded polystyrene—4.5R per inch; Type VI extruded polystyrene—4.5R per inch; Type IX expanded polystyrene—3.2Rper inch; Type X extruded polystyrene—R per inch.
d. Vertical insulation shall be expanded polystyrene insulation or extruded polystyrene insulation.
e. Horizontal insulation shall be extruded polystyrene insulation.
1,500 or less 12 4.5 Not required Not required Not required Not required Not required
2,000 14 5.6 Not required Not required Not required Not required Not required
2,500 16 6.7 1.7 4.9 12 24 40
3,000 16 7.8 6.5 8.6 12 24 40
3,500 16 9.0 8.0 11.2 24 30 60
4,000 16 10.1 10.5 13.1 24 36 60
128

FIGURE R403.3(2) AIR-FREEZING INDEX AN ESTIMATE OF THE 100-YEAR RETURN PERIOD

FIGURE R403.3(2)
AIR-FREEZING INDEX AN ESTIMATE OF THE 100-YEAR RETURN PERIOD

129
TABLE R403.3(2
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S LOCATIONS BY COUNTY
STATE AIR-FREEZING INDEX
1500 or less 200 2500 3000 3500 4000
Alabama All countries
Alaska Ketchikan Gateway, Prince of Wales–Outer Ketchikan (CA), Sitka, Wrangell-Petersburg(CA) Aleutians West (CA), Haines, Juneau, Skagway-Hoonah-Angoon (CA), Yakutat All counties not listed
Arizona All counties
Arkansas All counties
California All counties not listed Nevada, Sierra
Colorado All counties not listed Archuleta, Custer, Fremont, Huerfano, Las Animas, Ouray, Pitkin, San Miguel Clear Creek, Conejos, Costilla, Dolores, Eagle, La Plata, Park, Routt, San Juan, Summit Alamosa, Grand, Jackson, Larimer, Moffat, Rio Blanco, Rio Grande Chaffee, Gunnison, Lake, Saguache Hinsdale, Mineral
Connecticut All counties not listed Hartford,Litchfield
Delaware All counties
District of Columbia All counties
Florida All counties
Georgia All counties
Hawaii All counties
Idaho All counties not listed Adams, Bannock, Blaine, Clearwater, Idaho, Lincoln, Oneida, Power Valley, Washington Bingham, Bonneville, Camas, Caribou, Elmore, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Teton Bear Lake, Butte, Custer, Fremont, Lemhi Clark
Illinois All counties not listed Boone, Bureau, Cook, Dekalb, DuPage, Fulton, Grundy, Henderson, Henry, Iroquois, Jo Davises, Kane, Kankakee, Kendall, Knox, La Salle, Lake, Lee, Livingston, Marshall, Mason, McHenry, McLean, Mercer, Peoria, Putnam, Rock Island, Stark Tazewell, Warren, Whiteside, Will, Woodford Carroll, Ogle, Stephenson, Winnebago
Indiana All counties not listed Allen, Benton, Cass, Fountain, Fulton, Howard, Jasper, Kosciusko, La Porte, Lake, Marshall, Miami, Newton, Porter,Pulaski, Starke, Steuben, Tippecanoe, Tipton, Wabash, Warren, White 130
lowa Appanoose, Davis, Fremont, Lee, Van Buren All counties not listed Allamakee, Black Hawk, Boone, Bremer, Buchanan, Buena Vista, Butler, Calhoun, Cerro Gordo, Checrokee, Chickasaw, Clay, Clayton, Delaware, Dubuque, Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, Grundy, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Humboldt, Ida, Jackson, Jasper, Jones, Linn, Marshall, Palo Alto, Plymouth, Pocahontas, Poweshiek, Sac, Sioux, Story, Tama, Webster, Winnebago, Woodbury, Worth, Wright Dickinson, Emmet, Howard, Kossuth, Lyon, Mitchell, O’Brien, Osceola, Winneshiek
Kansas All counties
Kentucky All counties
Louisiana All counties
Maine York Knox, Lincoln, Sagadahoc Androscoggin, Cumberland, Hancock, Kennebec, Waldo, Washington Aroostook, Franklin, Oxford, Penobscot, Piscataquis, Somerset
Maryland All counties
Massachustetts All counties Berkshire, Franklin, Hampden, Worcester
Michigan Berrien, Branch, Cass, Kalamazoo, Macomb, Ottawa, St. Clair, St. Joseph All counties not listed Alger, Charlevoix, Cheboygan, Chippewa, Crawford, Delta, Emmet, Losco, Kalkasta, Lake, Luee, Mackinac, Menotmorency, Missauakee, Montmorency, Ogrmaw, Osceola, Otsego, Roscommon, Schoolcraft, Wexford Baraga, Dickinson, Iron, Keweenaw, Marguette Gogebic, Houghton, Ontonagon
Minnesota Houston, Winona All counties not listed Aitkin, Big Stone, Carlton, Crow Wing, Douglas, Itasca, Kanabec, Lake, Morrison, Pine, Pope, Sterams, Stevens, Swift, Todd, Wadena Becker, Beltrami, Cass, Clay, Clearwater, Grant, Hubbard, Kittson, Koochiching, Lake of the Woods, Mahnomen, Marshall, Norman, Otter Tail, Pennington, Polk, Red Lake, Roseau, St Louis, Traverse, Wilkin
Mississippi All counties
Missouri All counties not listed Atchison, Mercer, Nodaway, Putnam 131
Montana Mineral Broadwater, Golden Valley, Granite, Lake, Lincoln, Missoula, Ravalli, Sanders, Sweet Grass Big Horn, Carbon, Jefferson, Judith Basin, Lewis and Clark, Meagher, Musselshell, Powder River, Powell, Silver Bow, Stillwater, Westland Carter, Cascter, Deer Lodge, Flacon, Fergus, Flathead, Gallanting, Glacier, Madison, Park, Petroleum, Ponder, Rosebud, Teton, Treasure, Yellowstone Beaverhead, Blaine, Chouteau, Custer, Dawson, Garfield, Liberty, McCone, Prairie, Toole, Wibaux Daniels, Hill, Phillips, Richland, Roosevelt, Sheridan, Valley
Nebraska Adams, Banner, Chase, Cheyenne, Clay, Deuel, Dundy, Fillmore, Franklin, Frontier, Furnas, Gage, Garden, Gosper, Harlan, Hayes, Hitchcock, Jefferson, Kimball, Morrill, Nemaha, Nuckolls, Pawnee, Perkins, Phelps, Red Willow, Richardson, Saline, Scotts Bluff, Seward, Thayer, Webster All counties not listed Boyd, Burt, Cedar, Cuming, Dakota, Dixon, Dodge, Knox, Thurston
Neveda All counties not listed Elko, Eureka, Nye, Washoe, White Pine
New Hampshire All counties not listed Carroll, Coos, Grafton
New Jersey All counties
New Mexico All counties not listed Rio Arriba Colfax, Mora, Taos
New York Albany, Bronx, Cayuga, Columbia, Cortland, Dutchess, Genessee, Kings, Livingston, Mornoe, Nassau, New York, Niagara, Onondaga, Ontario, Orange, Orleans, Putnam, Queens, Richmond, Rockland, Seneca, Suffolk, Wayne, Westchester, Yates All counties not listed Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Warren
North Carolina All counties
North Dakota Billings, Bowman Adams, Dickey, Golden Valley, Hettinger, LaMoure, Oliver, Ransom, Sargent, Sioux, Slope, Stark All counties not listed
Ohio All counties not listed Ashland, Crawford, Defiance, Holmes, Huron, Knox, Licking, Morrow, Paulding, Putnam, Richland, Seneca, Williams 132
Oklahoma All counties
Oregon All counties not listed Baker, Crook, Grant, Harney
Pennsylvania All counties not listed Berks, Blair, Bradford, Cambria, Cameron, Centre, Clarion, Clearfield, Clinton, Crawford, Elk, Forest, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Lackawanna, Lycoming, Mckean, Pike, Potter, Susquehanna, Tioga, Venango, Warren, Wayne, Wyoming
Rhode Island All counties
South Carolina All counties
South Dakota Bennett, Custer, Fall River, Lawrence, Mellette, Shannon, Todd, Tripp Bon Homme, Charles Mix, Davison, Douglas, Gregory, Jackson, Jones, Lyman All counties not listed Beadle, Brookings, Brown, Campbell, Codington, Corson, Day, Deuel, Edmunds, Faulk, Grant, Hamlin, Kingsbury, Marshall, McPherson, Perkins, Roberts, Spink, Walworth
Tennessee All counties
Texas All counties
Utah All counties not listed Box Elder, Morgan, Weber Garfield, Salt Lake, Summit Carbon, Daggett, Duchesne, Rich, Sanpete, Uinta, Wasatch
Vermont Bennington, Grand Isle, Rutland, Windham Addison, Chittenden, Franklin, Orange, Washington, Windsor Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille, Orleans
Virginia All counties
Washington All counties not listed Chelan, Douglas, Ferry, Okanogan
West Virginia All counties
Wisconsin Kenosha, Kewaunee, Racine, Sheboygan, Walworth All counties not listed Ashland, Barron, Burnett, Chippewa, Clark, Dunn, Eau Claire, Florence, Forest, Iron, Jackson, La Crosse, Langlade, Marathon, Monroe, Pepin, Polk, Portage, Price, Rust, St. Croix, Taylor, Trempealeau, Vilas, Wood Bayfield, Douglas, Lincoln, Oneida, Sawyer, Washburn
Wyomin Goshen, Platte Converse, Crooke, Laramie, Niobrara Campbell, Carbon, Hot Springs, Johnson, Natrona, Sheridan, Uinta, Weston Albany, Big Horn, Park, Washakie Fremont, Teton Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater
133

FIGURE R403.3(3) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE

FIGURE R403.3(3)
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE

134

FIGURE R403.3(4) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO HEATED STRUCTURE

FIGURE R403.3(4)
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO HEATED STRUCTURE

TABLE R403.4
MINIMUM DEPTH OF CRUSHED STONE FOOTINGS (D)2
  LOAD BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf)
1500 2000 3000 4000
MH, CH, CL, ML SC, GC, SM, GM, SP, SW GP, GW  
Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches)
6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12
Conventional light-frame construction
For SI: 1 inch=25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch=6.89 kPa.
1-story 1100 plf 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 1800 plf 8 6 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 2000 plf 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
4-inch brick veneer over fight-frame or 8-inch hollow concrete masonry
1-story 1500 plf 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 2700 plf 14 12 10 8 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 4000 plf 22 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4
8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry
1-story 2000 plf 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 3600 plf 20 18 16 16 14 12 10 8 8 6 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 5300 plf 32 30 28 26 22 22 20 18 14 12 10 8 10 8 6 4
135

FIGURE R403.4(1) BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL BEARING ON CRUSHED STONE

FIGURE R403.4(1)
BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL BEARING ON CRUSHED STONE

R404.1.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. Concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall be constructed as set forth in Table R404.1.1(1), R404.1.1(2), R404.1.1(3) or R404.1.1(4) and shall also comply with applicable provisions of Sections R606, R607 and R608. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall also comply with Section R404.1.4.1. Rubble stone masonry foundation walls shall be constructed in accordance with Sections R404.1.8 and R607.2.2. Rubble stone masonry walls shall not be used in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

R404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls that support light-frame walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls that are within the applicability limits of Section R611.2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls that are not within the applicability limits of Section R611.2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. When ACI 318, ACI 332, PCA 100 or the provisions of this section are used to design concrete foundation walls, project drawings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear the scal of the architect

FIGURE R403.4(2)BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL ON SPREAD FOOTING

FIGURE R403.4(2)
BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL ON SPREAD FOOTING

or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority.

R404.1.2.1 Concrete cross-section. Concrete walls constructed in accordance with this code shall comply with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimensions required by Table R611.3. Other types of forming systems resulting in concrete walls not in compliance with this section and Table R611.3 shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

R404.1.2.2 Reinforcement for foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom. Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Table R404.1.2(1). Vertical reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Table R404.1.2(2), R404.1.2(3), R404.1.2(4), R404.1.2(5), R404.1.2(6), R404.1.2(7) or R404.1.2(8). Vertical reinforcement for flat basement walls retaining 4 feet (1219 mm) or more of unbalanced backfill is permitted to be determined in accordance with Table R404.1.2(9). For basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls, vertical reinforcement shall be the greater of that required by Tables R404.1.2(2) through R404.1.2(8) or by Section R611.6 for the above-grade wall. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2, concrete foundation walls shall also comply with Section R404.1.4.2.

136
TABLE R404.1.1(1)
PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS
MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTc (feet) PLAIN MASONRYa MINIMUM NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches)
Soll classesb
GW, GP, SW and SP GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML SC, MH, ML-CL and inorganic CL
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 Pa.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. Ungrouted hollow masonry units are permitted except where otherwise indicated.
b. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
c. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
d. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units.
e. Wall construction shall be in accordance with either Table R404.1.1(2), Table R404.1.1(3), Table R404.1.1(4), or a design shall be provided.
5 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8
5 6 solidd or 8 8 10
6 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8
5 6 solidd or 8 8 10
6 8 10 12
7 4 6 solidd or 8 8 8
5 6 solidd or 8 10 10
6 10 12 10 solidd
7 12 10 solidd 12 solidd
8 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 8
5 6 soliddor 8 10 12
6101212 solidd
71212 soliddFootnote e
810 solidd12 soliddFootnote e
9 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 8
5 8 10 12
6 10 12 12 solidd
7 12 6 solidd Footnote e
8 12 solidd Footnote e Footnote e
9 Footnote e Footnote e Footnote e
137
TABLE R404.1.1(2)
8-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 5 INCHESa,c
WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCED BACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b,c
Soil classes and lateral soil loadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SP soils 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 60
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.
b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per linedal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.
c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 5 inches.
d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table R405.1.
e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
6 feet 8 inches #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #5 at 48
7 feet 4 inches #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
8 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #5 at 48
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
8 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 32
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #5 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
8 feet 8 inches #6 at 48 #6 at 32 #6 at 4
9 feet 9 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #5 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
8 feet #6 at 48 #6 at 40 #6 at 24
9 feet 4 inches #6 at 40 #6 at 24 #6 at 16
10 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #5 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 32
8 feet #6 at 48 #6 at 32 #6 at 24
9 feet #6 at 40 #6 at 24 #6 at 16
10 feet #6 at 32 #6 at 16 #6 at 16
138
TABLE R404.1.1(3)
10-INCH FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 6.75 INCHESa,c
WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCED BACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b,c
Soil classes and later soil loadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SP soils 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 60
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.
b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.
c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 6.75 inches.
d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table R405.1.
e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet 8 inches #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet 4 inches #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 56 #6 at 48
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet 8 inches #5 at 56 #6 at 48 #6 at 32
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 56 #6 at 40
9 feet 4 inches #6 at 56 #6 at 40 #6 at 24
10 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 56 #6 at 48
8 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
9 feet #6 at 56 #6 at 40 #6 at 24
10 feet #6 at 48 #6 at 32 #6 at 24
139
TABLE R404.1.1(4)
12-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE D > 8.75 INCHESa,c
WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCED BACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b,c
Soil classes and lateral soil loadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SP soils 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 60
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.
b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.
c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 8.75 inches.
d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table R405.1.
e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height is permitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet 8 inches #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet 4 inches #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet #5 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 64
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet 8 inches #5 at 72 #7 at 72 #6 at 48
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet #5 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 56
9 feet 4 inches #6 at 72 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
10 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet #5 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 48
9 feet #6 at 72 #6 at 56 #6 at 40
10 feet #6 at 64 #6 at 40 #6 at 32
140
TABLE R404.1.2(1)
MINIMUM HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSa, b
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTEDHEIGHT OF BASEMENT WALL(feet) LOCATION OF HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Horizontal reinforcement requirements are for reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum concrete compressive strength 2,500 psi.
b. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for foundation walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
≤ 8 One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near mid-height of the wall story
> 8 One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near third points in the wall story
TABLE R404.1.2(2)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i, j
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHT1 (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT—BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2⁄m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and⁄or bars of a different size than specified in the tables are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. Deflection criterion is L⁄240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
g. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical reinforcement shall be No.4@48 inches on center.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
i. See Table R611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.
j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 6 @ 39 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 39 6 @ 48 6 @ 35
7 6 @ 48 6 @ 34 6 @ 25
8 6 @ 39 6 @ 25 6 @ 18
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 37 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 36 6 @ 44 6 @ 32
7 6 @ 47 6 @ 30 6 @ 22
8 6 @ 34 6 @ 22 6 @ 16
9 6 @ 27 6 @ 17 DR
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 35 6 @ 48
6 6 @ 48 6 @ 41 6 @ 30
7 6 @ 43 6 @ 28 6 @ 20
8 6 @ 31 6 @ 20 DR
9 6 @ 24 6 @ 15 DR
10 6 @ 19 DR DR
141
TABLE R404.1.2(3)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 8-INCH (203 mm) NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTg (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT—BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC, and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2⁄m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and⁄ or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.
e. Deflection criterion is L⁄240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation is not permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
i. See Table R611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 37
7 NR 6 @ 36 6 @ 35
8 6 @ 41 6 @ 35 6 @ 26
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 35
7 NR 6 @ 35 6 @ 32
8 6 @ 36 6 @ 32 6 @ 23
9 6 @ 35 6 @ 25 6 @ 18
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 35
7 NR 6 @ 35 6 @ 29
8 6 @ 35 6 @ 29 6 @ 21
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 22 6 @ 16
10 6 @ 27 6 @ 17 6 @ 13
142
TABLE R404.1.2(4)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 10-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTg (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT—BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2⁄m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and⁄or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.
e. Deflection criterion is L⁄240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation is not permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
i. See Table R611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR NR
8 6 @ 48 6 @ 35 6 @ 28
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR 6 @ 31
8 NR 6 @ 31 6 @ 28
9 6 @ 37 6 @ 28 6 @ 24
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR 6 @ 28
8 NR 6 @ 28 6 @ 28
9 6 @ 33 6 @ 28 6 @ 21
10 6 @ 28 6 @ 23 6 @ 17
143
TABLE R404.1.2(5)
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTf (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT—BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and⁄or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
g. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
h. See Table R611.3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls.
i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.
8 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 6 @ 39
5 4 @ 45 5 @ 46 6 @ 47
6 5 @ 45 6 @ 40 DR
7 6 @ 44 DR DR
8 6 @ 32 DR DR
9 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 4 @ 37
5 4 @ 42 5 @ 43 6 @ 44
6 5 @ 41 6 @ 37 DR
7 6 @ 39 DR DR
>8 DRi DR DR
10 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 4 @ 35
5 4 @ 40 5 @ 40 6 @ 41
6 5 @ 38 6 @ 34 DR
7 6 @ 36 DR DR
>8 DR DR DR
144
TABLE R404.1.2(6)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 8-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i, j
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTg (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT—BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2⁄m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification Systems. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used in Grade 60 (420 MPa) and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and⁄or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.
e. Deflection criterion is L⁄240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation shall not be permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
i. See Table R611.3 for thickness and dimensions of waffle-grid walls.
j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 48 5 @ 46
6 5 @ 48 5 @ 43 6 @ 45
7 5 @ 46 6 @ 43 6 @ 31
8 6 @ 48 6 @ 32 6 @ 23
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 47 5 @ 46
6 5 @ 46 5 @ 39 6 @ 41
7 5 @ 42 6 @ 38 6 @ 28
8 6 @ 44 6 @ 28 6 @ 20
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 21 DR
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 46 5 @ 44
6 5 @ 46 5 @ 37 6 @ 38
7 5 @ 38 6 @ 35 6 @ 25
8 6 @ 39 6 @ 25 DR
9 6 @ 30 DR DR
10 6 @ 24 DR DR
145
TABLE R404.1.2(7)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH (152 mm) SCREEN-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb,c,d,e,g,h,i,
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHT1 (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT —BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot= 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcement bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2.(9).
d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
g. See Sections R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
h. See Table R611.3 for thicknesses and dimensions of screen-grid walls.
i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.
8 4 4@48 4@48 5@43
5 4@48 5@48 5@37
6 5@48 6@45 6@32
7 6@48 DR DR
8 6@36 DR DR
9 4 4@48 4@48 4@41
5 4@48 5@48 6@48
6 5@45 6@41 DR
7 6@43 DR DR
>8 DR DR DR
10 4 4@48 4@48 4@39
5 4@44 5@44 6@46
6 5@42 6@38 DR
7 6@40 DR DR
>8 DR DR DR
146
TABLE R404.1.2(8)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-, 8-, 10-INCH AND 12-INCH NOMINAL FLAT BASEMENT WALLSb,c,d,e,f,h,i,k,n
MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTg (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT — BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesaand design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
Minimum nominal wall thickness (inches)
6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 per pound square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical reinforcement shall be 4@48 inches on center.
e. Allowable deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the unsupported height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation is not permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. Vertical reinforcement shall be located to provide a cover of 1.25 inches measured from the inside face of the wall. The center of the steel shall not vary from the specified location by more than then greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness or 3/8-inch.
i. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the inside face of the wall shall not be less than 3/4 inch. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the outside face of the wall shall not be less than 1½ inches for No.5 bars and smaller, and not less than 2 inches for larger bars.
j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is not code in accordance with ACI 318.
k. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strength, f’c, of not less than 2,500 psi at 28 days, unless a higher strength is required by footnote 1 or m.
l. The minimum thickness is permitted to be reduced 2 inches, provided the minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, fc’, is 4,000 psi.
m. A plain concrete wall with a minimum nominal thickness of 12 inches is permitted, provided minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, fc’ is 3,500 psi.
n. See Table R611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.
5 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
6 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NR1 NR NR 4@35 NR1 NR NR
6 NR NR NR NR 5@48 NR NR NR 5@36 NR NR NR
7 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 5@47 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR NR 5@42 NR NR NR 6@43 5@48 NR1 NR
7 5@46 NR NR NR 6@42 5@46 NR1 NR 6@34 6@48 NR NR
8 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4@38 NR1 NR NR 5@43 NR NR NR
6 4@37 NR1 NR NR 5@37 NR NR NR 6@37 5@43 NR1 NR
7 5@40 NR NR NR 6@37 5@41 NR1 NR 6@34 6@43 NR NR
8 6@43 5@47 NR1 NR 6@34 6@43 NR NR 6@27 6@32 6@44 NR
9 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4@35 NR1 NR NR 5@40 NR NR NR
6 4@34 NR1 NR NR 6@48 NR NR NR 6@36 6@39 NR1 NR
7 5@36 NR NR NR 6@34 5@37 NR NR 6@33 6@38 5@37 NR1
8 6@38 5@41 NR1 NR 6@33 6@38 5@37 NR1 6@24 6@29 6@39 4@48m
9 6@34 6@46 NR NR 6@26 6@30 6@41 NR 6@19 6@23 6@30 6@39
10 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4@33 NR1 NR NR 5@38 NR NR NR
6 5@48 NR1 NR NR 6@45 NR NR NR 6@34 5@37 NR NR
7 6@47 NR NR NR 6@34 6@48 NR NR 6@30 6@35 6@48 NR
8 6@34 5@38 NR NR 6@30 6@34 6@47 NR1 6@22 6@26 6@35 6@45m
9 6@34 6@41 4@48 NR1 6@23 6@27 6@35 4@48m DR 6@22 6@27 6@34
10 6@28 6@33 6@45 NR DRi 6@23 6@29 6@38 DR 6@22 6@22 6@28
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TABLE R404.1.2(9)
MINIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATE GRADE OF STEELa,b,c R404.1.2.2
BAR SPACING FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R404.1.2.2 (inches) BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R404.1.2.2
≠4 ≠5 ≠6
Alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel desired
Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40
≠5 ≠6 ≠4 ≠5 ≠6 ≠4 ≠6 ≠4 ≠5 ≠6 ≠4 ≠5 ≠4 ≠5 ≠6
Maximum spacing for alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel (inches)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. This table is for use table in Section R404.1.2.2 that specify the minimum bar size and maximum spacing of vertical wall reinforcement for foundation walls and above-grade walls. Reinforcement specified in tables in Sections R404.1.2.2 is based on Grade 60 steel reinforcement.
b. Bar spacing shall not exceed 48 inches on center and shall not be less than one-half the nominal wall thickness.
c. For Grade 50 steel bars (ASTM A 996, Type R), use spacing for Grade 40 bars or interpolate between Grades 40 and 60.
8 12 18 5 8 12 5 11 3 5 8 4 6 2 4 5
9 14 20 6 9 13 6 13 4 6 9 4 6 3 4 6
10 16 22 7 10 15 6 14 4 7 9 5 7 3 5 7
11 17 24 7 11 16 7 16 5 7 10 5 8 3 5 7
12 19 26 8 12 18 8 17 5 8 11 5 8 4 6 8
13 20 29 9 13 19 8 18 6 9 12 6 9 4 6 9
14 22 31 9 14 21 9 20 6 9 13 6 10 4 7 9
15 23 33 10 16 22 10 21 6 10 14 7 11 5 7 10
16 25 35 11 17 23 10 23 7 11 15 7 11 5 8 11
17 26 37 11 18 25 11 24 7 11 16 8 12 5 8 11
18 28 40 12 19 26 12 26 8 12 17 8 13 5 8 12
19 29 42 13 20 28 12 27 8 13 18 9 13 6 9 13
20 31 44 13 21 29 13 28 9 13 19 9 14 6 9 13
21 33 46 14 22 31 14 30 9 14 20 10 15 6 10 14
22 34 48 15 23 32 14 31 9 15 21 10 16 7 10 15
23 36 48 15 24 34 15 33 10 15 22 10 16 7 11 15
24 37 48 16 25 35 15 34 10 16 23 11 17 7 11 16
25 39 48 17 26 37 16 35 11 17 24 11 18 8 12 17
26 40 48 17 27 38 17 37 11 17 25 12 18 8 12 17
27 42 48 18 28 40 17 38 12 18 26 12 19 8 13 18
28 43 48 19 29 41 18 40 12 19 26 13 20 8 13 19
29 45 48 19 30 43 19 41 12 19 27 13 20 9 14 19
30 47 48 20 31 44 19 43 13 20 28 14 21 9 14 20
31 48 48 21 32 45 20 44 13 21 29 14 22 9 15 21
32 48 48 21 33 47 21 45 14 21 30 15 23 10 15 21
33 48 48 22 34 48 21 47 14 22 31 15 23 10 16 22
34 48 48 23 35 48 22 48 15 23 32 15 24 10 15 23
35 48 48 23 36 48 23 48 15 23 33 16 25 11 16 23
36 48 48 24 37 48 23 48 15 24 34 16 25 11 17 24
37 48 48 25 39 48 25 48 16 25 36 17 27 12 17 25
38 48 48 25 39 48 25 48 16 25 36 17 27 12 18 25
39 48 48 26 40 48 25 48 17 26 37 18 27 12 18 26
40 48 48 27 41 48 26 48 17 27 38 18 28 12 19 27
41 48 48 27 42 48 26 48 18 27 39 19 28 12 19 27
42 48 48 28 42 48 27 48 18 27 40 19 29 13 20 28
43 48 48 28 44 48 28 48 18 29 41 20 30 13 20 29
44 48 48 29 45 48 28 48 19 29 42 20 31 13 21 29
45 48 48 30 47 48 29 48 19 30 43 20 32 14 21 30 148
46 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 32 14 22 31
47 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 33 14 22 31
48 48 48 32 48 48 31 48 21 32 45 22 34 15 23 32

R404.1.2.2.1 Concrete foundation stem walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. Foundation stem walls that support above-grade concrete walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section.

  1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are not monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall comply with this section. Where unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is less than or equal to 18 inches (457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade wall it supports shall be provided with vertical reinforcement in accordance with Section R611.6 and Table R611.6(1), R611.6(2) or R611.6(3) for above-grade walls. Where unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade wall it supports shall be provided with vertical reinforcement in accordance with Section R611.6 and Table R611.6(4).
  2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall be vertically reinforced in accordance with Section R611.6 and Table R611.6(1), R611.6(2) or R611.6(3) for above-grade walls. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the connection between the stem wall and the slab-on-ground, and the portion of the slab-on-ground providing lateral support for the wall shall be designed in accordance with PCA 100 or in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the minimum norminal thickness of the wall shall be 6 inches (152 mm).

R404.1.2.2.2 Concrete foundation stem walls supporting light-frame above-grade walls. Concrete foundation stem walls that support light-frame above-grade walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section.

  1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are not monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground and retain 48 inches (1219 mm) or less of unbalanced fill, measured from the top of the wall, shall be constructed in accordance with Section R404.1.2. Foundation stem walls that retain more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced fill, measured from the top of the wall, shall be designed in accordance with Sections R404.1.3 and R404.4.
  2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall be constructed in accordance with Section R404.1.2. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 48 inches (1219 mm), the connection between the stem wall and the slab-on-ground, and the portion of the slab-on-ground providing lateral support for the wall shall be designed in accordance with PCA 100 or in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R404.1.2.3 Concrete, materials for concrete, and forms. Materials used in concrete, the concrete itself and forms shall conform to requirements of this sections or ACI 318.

R404.1.2.3.1 Compressive strength. The minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, f’c shall comply with Section R402.2 and shall be not less than 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) at 28 days in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C and 3000 psi (20.5 MPa) in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0 D1 or D2.

R404.1.2.3.2 Concrete mixing and delivery. Mixing and delivery of concrete shall comply with ASTM C 94 or ASTM C 685.

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R404.1.2.3.3 Maximum aggregate size. The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed one-fifth the narrowest distance between sides of forms, or three-fourths the clear spacing between reinforcing bars or between a bar and the side of the form.

Exception: Whenapproved, these limitations shall not apply where removable forms are used and workability and methods of consolidation permit concrete to be placed without honeycombs or voids.

R404.1.2.3.4 Proportioning and slump of concrete. Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established to provide workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into forms and around reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed, without segregation or excessive bleeding. Slump of concrete placed in removable forms shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm).

Exception: When approved, the slump is permitted to exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete mixtures that are resistant to segregation, and are in accordance with the form manufacturer' recommendations.

Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms shall exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete shall be determined in accordance with ASTMC 143.

R404.1.2.3.5 Consolidation of concrete. Concrete shall be consolidated by suitable means during placement and shall be worked around embedded items and reinforcement and into corners of forms. Where stay-in-place forms are used, concrete shall be consolidated by internal vibration.

Exception: When approved for concrete to be placed in stay-in-place forms, self-consolidating concrete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater than 8 inches (203 mm) that are specifically designed for placement without internal vibration need not to be internally vibrated.

R404.1.2.3.6 Form materials and form ties. Forms shall be made of wood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a composite of cement and foam insulation, a composite of cement and wood chips, or other approved material suitable for supporting and containing concrete. Forms shall provide sufficient strength to contain concrete during the concrete placement operation.

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plastic, a composite of cement and wood chips, a composite of cement and foam plastic, or other suitable material capable of resisting the forces created by fluid pressure of fresh concrete.

R404.1.2.3.6.1 Stay-in-place forms. Stay-in-place concrete forms shall comply with this section.

  1. Surface burning characteristics. The flame-spread index and smoke-developed index of forming material, other than foam plastic, left exposed on the interior shall comply with Section R302. The surface burning characteristics of foam plastic used in insulating concrete forms shall comply with Section R316.3.
  2. Interior covering. Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastic shall be protected on the interior of the building as required by Section R316. Where gypsum board is used to protect the foam plastic, it shall be installed with a mechanical fastening system. Use of adhesives in addition to mechanical fasteners is permitted.
  3. Exterior wall covering. Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastics shall be protected from sunlight and physical damage by the application of an approved exterior wall covering complying with this code. Exterior surfaces of other stay-in-place forming systems shall be protected in accordance with this code.
  4. Termite hazards. In areas where hazard of termite damage is very heavy in accordance with Figure R301.2(6), foam plastic insulation shall be permitted belowgrade on foundation walls in accordance with one of the following conditions:
    1. Where in addition to the requirements in Section R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is provided.
    2. The structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.
    3. On the interior side of basement walls.

R404.1.2.3.7 Reinforcement.

R404.1.2.3.7.1 Steel reinforcement. Steel reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706, or A 996. ASTM A 996 bars produced from rail steel shall be Type R. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C, the minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0’ D1 or D2’, reinforcing steel shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A 706 for low-alloy steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (Grade 60) (414 MPa).

R404.1.2.3.7.2 Location of reinforcement in wall. The center of vertical reinforcement in basement walls determined from Tables R404.1.2(3) through R404.1.2(7) shall be located at the centerline of the wall. Vertical reinforcement in basement walls determined from Tables R404.1.2(2) or R404.1.2(8) shall be located to provided a maximum

150

cover of 1.25 inches (32 mm) measured from the inside face of the wall. Regardless of the table used to determine vertical wall reinforcement, the center of the steel shall not vary from the specified location by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness and 3⁄8inch (10 mm). Horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be located in foundation walls to provide the minimum cover required by Section R404.1.2.3.7.4.

R404.1.2.3.7.3 Wall openings. Vertical wall reinforcement required by Section R404.1.2.2 that is interrupted by wall openings shall have additional vertical reinforcement of the same size placed within 12 inches (305 mm) of each side of the opening.

R404.1.2.3.7.4 Support and cover. Reinforcement shall be secured in the proper location in the forms with tie wire or other bar support system to prevent displacement during the concrete placement operation. Steel reinforcement in concrete cast against the earth shall have a minimum cover of 3 inches (75 mm). Minimum cover for reinforcement in concrete cast in removable forms that will be exposed to the earth or weather shall be 1½ inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars and smaller, and 2 inches (50 mm) for No. 6 bars and larger. For concrete cast in removable forms that will not be exposed to the earth or weather, and for concrete cast in stay-in-place forms, minimum cover shall be ¾ inch (19 mm). The minus tolerance for cover shall not exceed the smaller of one-third the required cover or 3⁄8 inch (10 mm).

R404.1.2.3.7.5 Lap splices. Vertical and horizontal wall reinforcement shall be the longest lengths practical. Where splices are necessary in reinforcement, the length of lap splice shall be in accordance with Table R611.5.4.(1) and Figure R611.5.4.(1). The maximum gap between noncontact parallel bars at a lap splice shall not exceed the smaller of one-fifth the required lap length and 6 inches (152 mm). See Figure R611.5.4(1).

R404.1.2.3.7.6 Alternate grade of reinforcement and spacing. Where tables in Section R404.1.2.2 specify vertical wall reinforcement based on minimum bar size and maximum spacing, which are based on Grade 60 (414 MPa) steel reinforcement, different size bars and/or bars made from a different grade of steel are permitted provided an equivalent area of steel per linear foot of wall is provided. Use of Table R404.1.2(9) is permitted to determine the maximum bar spacing for different bar sizes than specified in the tables and/or bars made from a different grade of steel. Bars shall not be spaced less than one-half the wall thickness, or more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center.

R404.1.2.3.7.7 Standard hooks. Where reinforcement is required by this code to terminate with a standard hook, the hook shall comply with Section R611.5.4.5 and Figure R611.5.4(3).

R404.1.2.3.7.8 Construction joint reinforcement. Construction joints in foundation walls shall be made and located to not impair the strength of the wall. Construction joints in plain concrete walls, including walls required to have not less than No. 4 bars at 48 inches (1219 mm) on center by Sections R404.1.2.2 and R404.1.4.2, shall be located at points of lateral support, and a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall extend across the construction joint at a spacing not to exceed 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Construction joint reinforcement shall have a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) embedment on both sides of the joint. Construction joints in reinforced concrete walls shall be located in the middle third of the span between lateral supports, or located and constructed as required for joints in plain concrete walls.

Exception: Use of vertical wall reinforcement required by this code is permitted in lieu of construction joint reinforcement provided the spacing does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), or the combination of wall reinforcement and No. 4 bars described above does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm).

R404.1.2.3.8 Exterior wall coverings. Requirements for installation of masonry veneer, stucco and other wall coverings on the exterior of concrete walls and other construction details not covered in this section shall comply with the requirements of this code.

R404.1.2.4 Requirements for Seismic Design Category C. Concrete foundation walls supporting above-grade concrete walls in townhouses assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall comply with ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100 (see Section R404.1.2).

R404.1.3 Design required. Concrete or masonry foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice when either of the following conditions exists:

  1. Walls are subject to hydrostatic pressure from groundwater.
  2. Walls supporting more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill that do not have permanent lateral support at the top or bottom.

R404.1.4 Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2.

R404.1.4.1 Masonry foundation walls. In addition to the requirements of Table R404.1.1(1) plain masonry foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2, as established in Table R301.2(1), shall comply with the following.

  1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).
  2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).
  3. Minimum nominal thickness for plain masonry foundation walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm).151
  4. Masonry stem walls shall have a minimum vertical reinforcement of one No. 3 (No. 10) bar located a maximum of 4 feet (1219 mm) on center in grouted cells. Vertical reinforcement shall be tied to the horizontal reinforcement in the footings.

Foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2, as established in Table R301.2(1), supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall be constructed in accordance with Table R404.1.1(2), R404.1.1(3) or R404.1.1(4). Masonry foundation walls shall have two No. 4 (No. 13) horizontal bars located in the upper 12 inches (305 mm) of the wall.

R404.1.4.2 Concrete foundation walls. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2, as established in Table R301.2(1), concrete foundation walls that support light-frame walls shall comply with this section, and concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls shall comply with ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100 (see Section R404.1.2). In addition to the horizontal reinforcement required by Table R404.1.2(1), plain concrete walls supporting light-frame walls shall comply with the following.

  1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).
  2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).
  3. Minimum thickness for plain concrete foundation walls shall be 7.5 inches (191 mm) except that 6 inches (152 mm) is permitted where the maximum wall height is 4 feet, 6 inches (1372 mm).

Foundation walls less than 7.5 inches (191 mm) in thickness, supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall be provided with horizontal reinforcement in accordance with Table R404.1.2(1), and vertical reinforcement in accordance with Table R404.1.2(2), R404.1.2(3), R404.1.2(4), R404.1.2(5), R404.1.2(6), R404.1.2(7) or R404.1.2(8). Where Tables R404.1.2(2) through R404.1.2(8) permit plain concrete walls, not less than No. 4 (No. 13) vertical bars at a spacing not exceeding 48 inches (1219 mm) shall be provided.

R404.1.5 Foundation wall thickness based on walls supported. The thickness of masonry or concrete foundation walls shall not be less than that required by Section R404.1.5.1 or R404.1.5.2, respectively.

R404.1.5.1 Masonry wall thickness. Masonry foundation walls shall not be less than the thickness of the wall supported, except that masonry foundation walls of at least 8-inch (203 mm) nominal thickness shall be permitted under brick veneered frame walls and under 10-inch-wide (254 mm) cavity walls where the total height of the wall supported, including gables, is not more than 20 feet (6096 mm), provided the requirements of Section R404.1.1 are met.

R404.1.5.2 Concrete wall thickness. The thickness of concrete foundation walls shall be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wall in the story above. Concrete foundation walls with corbels, brackets or other projections built into the wall for support of masonry veneer or other purposes are not within the scope of the tables in this section.

Where a concrete foundation walls is reduced in thickness to provide a shelf for the support of masonry veneer, the reduced thickness shall be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wall in the story above. Vertical reinforcement for the foundation wall shall be based on Table R404.1.2(8) and located in the wall as required by Section R404.1.2.3.7.2 where that table is used. Vertical reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thinner portion of the wall.

Exception: Where the height of the reduced thickness portion measured to the underside of the floor assembly or sill plate above is less than or equal to 24 inches (610 mm) and the reduction in thickness does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical reinforcement is permitted to be based on the thicker portion of the wall.

R404.1.5.3 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Use of pier and curtain wall foundations shall be permitted to support light-frame construction not more than two stories in height, provided the following requirements are met:

  1. All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continuous concrete footings placed integrally with the exterior wall footings.
  2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing masonry wall shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal or 3 3/8 inches (92 mm) actual thickness, and shall be bonded integrally with piers spaced in accordance with Section R606.9.
  3. Piers shall be constructed in accordance with Section R606.6 and Section R606.6.1, and shall be bonded into the load-bearing masonry wall in accordance with Section R608.1.1 or Section R608.1.1.2.
  4. The maximum height of a 4-inch (102 mm) load-bearing masonry foundation wall supporting wood-frame walls and floors shall not be more than 4 feet (1219 mm).
  5. Anchorage shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6, Figure R404.1.5(1), or as specified by engineered design accepted by the building official.
  6. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) foundation walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for solid masonry or 12 inches (305 mm) for hollow masonry.
  7. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, prescriptive reinforcement shall be provided in the horizontal and vertical direction. Provide minimum horizontal joint reinforcement of two No.9 gage wires spaced not less than 6 inches (152 mm) or one ¼ inch (6.4 mm) diameter wire at 10 inches (254 mm) on center vertically. Provide minimum vertical reinforcement of one No. 4 bar at 48 inches (1220 mm) on center horizontally grouted in place.
152

FIGURE R404.1.5(1) FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS

FIGURE R404.1.5(1)
FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS

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R404.1.6 Height above finished grade. Concrete and masonry foundation walls shall extend above the finished grade adjacent to the foundation at all points a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) where masonry veneer is used and a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere.

R404.1.7 Backfill placement. Backfill shall not be placed against the wall until the wall has sufficient strength and has been anchored to the floor above, or has been sufficiently braced to prevent damage by the backfill.

Exception: Bracing is not required for walls supporting less than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill.

R404.1.8 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone masonry foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 16 inches (406 mm), shall not support an unbalanced backfill exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, shall not support a soil pressure greater than 30 pounds per square foot per foot (4.71 kPa/m), and shall not be constructed in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, D2 or townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, as established in Figure R301.2(2).

R404.2 Wood foundation walls. Wood foundation walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sections R404.2.1 through R404.2.6 and with the details shown in Figures R403.1(2) and R403.1(3).

R404.2.1 Identification. All load-bearing lumber shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency which has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted. Wood structural panels shall conform to DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 and shall be identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

R404.2.2 Stud size. The studs used in foundation walls shall be 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members. When spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center, a wood species with an Fb value of not less than 1,250 pounds per square inch (8619 kPa) as listed in AF&PA/NDS shall be used. When spaced 12 inches (305 mm) on center, an Fb of not less than 875 psi (6033 kPa) shall be required.

R404.2.3 Height of backfill. For wood foundations that are not designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA PWF, the height of backfill against a foundation wall shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm). When the height of fill is more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the interior grade of a crawl space or floor of a basement, the thickness of the plywood sheathing shall meet the requirements of Table R404.2.3.

R404.2.4 Backfilling. Wood foundation walls shall not be backfilled until the basement floor and first floor have been constructed or the walls have been braced. For crawl space construction, backfill or bracing shall be installed on the interior of the walls prior to placing backfill on the exterior.

R404.2.5 Drainage and dampproofing. Wood foundation basements shall be drained and dampproofed in accordance with Sections R405 and R406, respectively.

R404.2.6 Fastening. Wood structural panel foundation wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Section R402.1.1.

R404.3 Wood sill plates. Wood sill plates shall be a minimum of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) nominal lumber. Sill plate anchorage shall be in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.

R404.4 Retaining walls. Retaining walls that are not laterally supported at the top and that retain in excess of 24 inches (610 mm) of unbalanced fill shall be designed to ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift. Retaining walls shall be designed for a safety factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.

404.5 Precast concrete foundation walls.

R404.5.1 Design. Precast concrete foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. The design and manufacture of precast concrete foundation wall panels shall comply with the materials requirements of Section R402.3 or ACI 318. The panel design drawings shall be prepared by a registered design professional.

R404.5.2 Precast concrete foundation design drawings. Precast concrete foundation wall design drawings shall be submitted to the building official and approved prior to installation. Drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:

  1. Design loading as applicable;
  2. Footing design and material;
  3. Concentrated loads and their points of application;
  4. Soil bearing capacity;
  5. Maximum allowable total uniform load;
  6. Seismic design category; and
  7. Basic wind speed.

R404.5.3 Identification. Precast concrete foundation wall panels shall be identified by a certificate of inspection label issued by an approved third party inspection agency.

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TABLE R404.2.3
PLYWOOD GRADE AND THICKNESS FOR WOOD FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION
(30 pcf equivalent-fluid weight soil pressure)
HEIGHT OF FILL (inches) STUD SPACING (inches) FACE GRAIN ACROSS STUDS FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO STUDS
Gradea Minimum thickness (inches) Span rating Gradea Minimum thickness (inches)b, c Span rating
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 0.1572kN/m3.
a. Plywood shall be of the following minimum grades in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2:
1. DOC PS 1 Plywood grades marked:
1.1. Structural I C-D (Exposure 1)
1.2. C-D (Exposure 1)
2. DOC PS 2 Plywood grades marked:
2.1. Structural I Sheathing (Exposure 1)
2.2. Sheathing (Exposure 1)
3. Where a major portion of the wall is exposed above ground and a better appearance is desired, the following plywood grades marked exterior are suitable:
3.1 Structural I A-C, Structural I B-C or Structural I C-C (Plugged) in accordance with DOC PS 1
3.2. A-C Group 1, B-C Group 1, C-C (Plugged) Group 1 or MDO Group 1 in accordance with DOC PS 1
3.3. Single Floor in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2
b. Minimum thickness 15/32 inch, except crawl space sheathing may be 3/8 inch for face grain across studs 16 inches on center and maximum 2-foot depth of unequal fill.
c. For this fill height, thickness and grade combination, panels that are continuous over less than three spans (across less than three stud spacings) require blocking 16 inches above the bottom plate. Offset adjacent blocks and fasten through studs with two 16d corrosion-resistant nails at each end.
24 12 B 15⁄32 32⁄16 A 15⁄32 32⁄16.
B 15⁄32c 32⁄16
16 B 15⁄32 32⁄16 A 15⁄32c 32⁄16
B 19⁄32c(4, 5 ply) 40⁄20
36 12 B 15⁄32 32⁄16 A 15⁄32 32⁄16
B 15⁄32c (4, 5 ply) 32⁄16
B 19⁄32(4, 5 ply) 40⁄20
16 B 15⁄32c 32⁄16 A 19⁄32 40⁄20
B 23⁄32 48⁄24
48 12 B 15⁄32 32⁄16 A 15⁄32c 32⁄16
B 19⁄32c (4, 5 ply) 40⁄20
16 B 19⁄32 40⁄20 A 19⁄32c 40⁄20
A 23⁄32 48⁄24
155

SECTION R405
FOUNDATION DRAINAGE

R405.1 Concrete or masonry foundations. Drains shall be provided around all concrete or masonry foundations that retain earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below grade. Drainage tiles, gravel or crushed stone drains, perforated pipe or other approved systems or materials shall be installed at or below the area to be protected and shall discharge by gravity or mechanical means into an approved drainage system. Gravel or crushed stone drains shall extend at least 1 foot (305 mm) beyond the outside edge of the footing and 6 inches (152 mm) above the top of the footing and be covered with an approved filter membrane material. The top of open joints of drain tiles shall be protected with strips of building paper, and the drainage tiles or perforated pipe shall be placed on a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) of washed gravel or crushed rock at least one sieve size larger than the tile joint opening or perforation and covered with not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of the same material.

Exception: A drainage system is not required when the foundation is installed on well-drained ground or sand-gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1.

R405.1.1 Precast concrete foundation. Precast concrete walls that retain earth and enclose habitable or useable space located below-grade that rest on crushed stone footings shall have a perforated drainage pipe installed below the base of the wall on either the interior or exterior side of the wall, at least one foot (305 mm) beyond the edge of the wall. If the exterior drainage pipe is used, an approved filter membrane material shall cover the pipe. The drainage system shall discharge into an approved sewer system or to daylight.

R405.2 Wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be adequately drained in accordance with Sections R405.2.1 through R405.2.3.

R405.2.1 Base. A porous layer of gravel, crushed stone or coarse sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) under the basement floor. Provision shall be made for automatic draining of this layer and the gravel or crushed stone wall footings.

TABLE R405.1
PROPERTIES OF SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
SOIL GROUP UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM SYMBOL SOIL DESCRIPTION DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICSa FROST HEAVE POTENTIAL VOLUME CHANGE POTENTIAL EXPANSIONb
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. The percolation rate for good drainage is over 4 inches per hour, medium drainage is 2 inches to 4 inches per hour, and poor is less than 2 inches per hour.
b. Soils with a low potential expansion typically have a plasticity index (PI) of 0 to 15, soils with a medium potential expansion have a PI of 10 to 35 and soils with a high potential expansion have a PI greater than 20.
Group I GW Well-graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines Good Low Low
GP Poorly graded gravels or gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines Good Low Low
SW Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines Good Low Low
SP Poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines Good Low Low
GM Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures Good Medium Low
SM Silty sand, sand-silt mixtures Good Medium Low
Group II GC Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures Medium Medium Low
SC Clayey sands, sand-clay mixture Medium Medium Low
ML Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity Medium High Low
CL Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays Medium Medium Medium to Low
Group III CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays Poor Medium High
MH Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts Poor High High
Group IV OL Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity Poor Medium Medium
OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts Unsatisfactory Medium High
Pt Peat and other highly organic soils Unsatisfactory Medium High
156

R405.2.2 Vapor retarder. A 6-mil-thick (0.15 mm) polyethylene vapor retarder shall be applied over the porous layer with the basement floor constructed over the polyethylene.

R405.2.3 Drainage system. In other than Group I soils, a sump shall be provided to drain the porous layer and footings. The sump shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in diameter or 20 inches square (0.0129 m2), shall extend at least 24 inches (610 mm) below the bottom of the basement floor and shall be capable of positive gravity or mechanical drainage to remove any accumulated water. The drainage system shall discharge into an approved sewer system or to daylight.

SECTION R406
FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING
AND DAMPPROOFING

R406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation dampproofing.Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be dampproofed from the top of the footing to the finished grade. Masonry walls shall have not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) portland cement parging applied to the exterior of the wall. The parging shall be dampproofed in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Bituminous coating.
  2. Three pounds per square yard (1.63 kg/m2) of acrylic modified cement.
  3. One-eighth inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding cement complying with ASTM C 887.
  4. Any material permitted for waterproofing in Section R406.2.
  5. Other approved methods or materials.

    Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not required where a material is approved for direct application to the masonry.

Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by applying any one of the above listed dampproofing materials or any one of the waterproofing materials listed in Section R406.2 to the exterior of the wall.

R406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation waterproofing. In areas where a high water table or other severe soil-water conditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be waterproofed from the top of the footing to the finished grade. Walls shall be waterproofed in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Two-ply hot-mopped felts.
  2. Fifty five pound (25 kg) roll roofing.
  3. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride.
  4. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene.
  5. Forty-mil (1 mm) polymer-modified asphalt.
  6. Sixty-mil (1.5 mm) flexible polymer cement.
  7. One-eighth inch (3 mm) cement-based, fiber-reinforced, waterproof coating.
  8. Sixty-mil (0.22 mm) solvent-free liquid-applied synthetic rubber.

Exception: Organic-solvent-based products such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones and esters shall not be used for ICF walls with expanded polystyrene form material. Use of plastic roofing cements, acrylic coatings, latex coatings, mortars and pargings to seal ICF walls is permitted. Cold-setting asphalt or hot asphalt shall conform to type C of ASTM D 449. Hot asphalt shall be applied at a temperature of less than 200°F (93°C).

All joints in membrane waterproofing shall be lapped and sealed with an adhesive compatible with the membrane.

R406.3 Dampproofing for wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed in accordance with Sections R406.3.1 through R406.3.4.

R406.3.1 Panel joint sealed. Plywood panel joints in the foundation walls shall be sealed full length with a caulking compound capable of producing a moisture-proof seal under the conditions of temperature and moisture content at which it will be applied and used.

R406.3.2 Below-grade moisture barrier. A 6-mil-thick (0.15 mm) polyethylene film shall be applied over the below-grade portion of exterior foundation walls prior to backfilling. Joints in the polyethylene film shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and sealed with adhesive. The top edge of the polyethylene film shall be bonded to the sheathing to form a seal. Film areas at grade level shall be protected from mechanical damage and exposure by a pressure preservatively treated lumber or plywood strip attached to the wall several inches above finish grade level and extending approximately 9 inches (229 mm) below grade. The joint between the strip and the wall shall be caulked full length prior to fastening the strip to the wall. Other coverings appropriate to the architectural treatment may also be used. The polyethylene film shall extend down to the bottom of the wood footing plate but shall not overlap or extend into the gravel or crushed stone footing.

R406.3.3 Porous fill. The space between the excavation and the foundation wall shall be backfilled with the same material used for footings, up to a height of 1 foot (305 mm) above the footing for well-drained sites, or one-half the total back-fill height for poorly drained sites. The porous fill shall be covered with strips of 30-pound (13.6 kg) asphalt paper or 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene to permit water seepage while avoiding infiltration of fine soils.

R406.3.4 Backfill. The remainder of the excavated area shall be backfilled with the same type of soil as was removed during the excavation.

R406.4 Precast concrete foundation system dampproofing. Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, precast concrete foundation walls enclosing habitable or useable spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed in accordance with Section R406.1.

157

R406.4.1 Panel joints sealed. Precast concrete foundation panel joints shall be sealed full height with a sealant meeting ASTM C 920, Type S or M, Grade NS, Class 25, Use NT, M or A. Joint sealant shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

SECTION R407
COLUMNS

R407.1 Wood column protection. Wood columns shall be protected against decay as set forth in Section R317.

R407.2 Steel column protection. All surfaces (inside and outside) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of rust-inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and steel treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance.

R407.3 Structural requirements. The columns shall be restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom end. Wood columns shall not be less in nominal size than 4 inches by 4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm). Steel columns shall not be less than 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) Schedule 40 pipe manufactured in accordance with ASTM A 53 Grade B or approved equivalent.

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, columns no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in height on a pier or footing are exempt from the bottom end lateral displacement requirement within under-floor areas enclosed by a continuous foundation.

SECTION R408
UNDER-FLOOR SPACE

R408.1 Ventilation. The under-floor space between the bottom of the floor joists and the earth under any building (except space occupied by a basement) shall have ventilation openings through foundation walls or exterior walls. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 m2) for each 150 square feet (14 m2) of under-floor space area, unless the ground surface is covered by a Class 1 vapor retarder material. When a Class 1 vapor retarder material is used, the minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 m2) for each 1,500 square feet (140 m2) of under-floor space area. One such ventilating opening shall be within 3 feet (914 mm) of each corner of the building.

R408.2 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 m2) for each 150 square feet (14 m2) of under-floor area. One ventilation opening shall be within 3 feet (915 mm) of each corner of the building. Ventilation openings shall be covered for their height and width with any of the following materials provided that the least dimension of the covering shall not exceed ¼ inch (6.4 mm):

  1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch (1.8 mm) thick.
  2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch (1.2 mm) thick.
  3. Cast -iron grill or grating.
  4. Extruded load -bearing brick vents.
  5. Hardware cloth of 0.035 inch (0.89 mm ) wire or heavier.
  6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension being 1⁄8 inch (3.2 mm) thick.

Exception: The total area of ventilation openings shall be permitted to be reduced to 1&7frac1500; of the under-floor area where the ground surface is covered with an approved Class I vapor retarder material and the required openings are placed to provide cross ventilation of the space . The instalation of operable louvers shall not be prohibited.

R408.3 Unvented crawl space. Ventilation openings in under-floor spaces specified in Sections R408.1 and R408.2 shall not be required where:

  1. Exposed earth is covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder. Joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 inches (152 mm) and shall be sealed or taped. The edges of the vapor retarder shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached and sealed to the stem wall and
  2. One of the following is provided for the under -floor space:
    1. Continuously operated mechanical exhaust ventilation at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute (0.47 L/s) for each 50 square feet (4.7 m2) of crawlspace floor area, including an air pathway to the common area (Such as a duct or transfer grille). Crawl space perimeter walls shall be insulated in accordance with the minimum insu-lation requirements established in the California Energy Code. Crawl space insulation shall be permanently fastened to the wall and extend downward from the floor to the finished grade level and then vertically and/or horizontally for at least an additional 24 inches (610 mm).
    2. Conditioned air supply sized to deliver at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute (0.47 L/s) for each 50 square feet (4.7 m2) of under -floor area, including a return air pathway to the common area (Such as a duct or transfer grille). Crawl space perimeter walls shall be insulated in accordance with the minimum insulation requirements established in the California Energy Code . Crawl space insulation shall be permanently fastened to the wall and extend downward from the floor to the finished grade level and then vertically and /or horizontally for at least an additional 24 inches (610 mm).
    3. Plenum in structures complying with the California Mechanical Code , if under -floor space is used as a plenum.
158

R408.4 Access. Access shall be provided to all under-floor spaces. Access openings through the floor shall be a minimum of 18 inches by 24 inches (457 mm by 610 mm). Openings through a perimeter wall shall be not less than 16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm). When any portion of the through-wall access is below grade, an areaway not less than 16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm) shall be provided. The bottom of the areaway shall be below the threshold of the access opening. Through wall access openings shall not be located under a door to the residence. See the California Mechanical Code for access requirements where mechanical equipment is located under floors.

R408.5 Removal of debris. The under-floor grade shall be cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. All wood forms used for placing concrete shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any purpose. All construction materials shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any purpose.

R408.6 Finished grade. The finished grade of under-floor surface may be located at the bottom of the footings; however, where there is evidence that the groundwater table can rise to within 6 inches (152 mm) of the finished floor at the building perimeter or where there is evidence that the surface water does not readily drain from the building site, the grade in the under-floor space shall be as high as the outside finished grade, unless an approved drainage system is provided.

R408.7 Flood resistance. For buildings located in areas prone to flooding as established in Table R301.2(1):

  1. Walls enclosing the under-floor space shall be provided with flood openings in accordance with Section R322.2.2.
  2. The finished ground level of the under-floor space shall be equal to or higher than the outside finished ground level on at least one side.

Exception: Under-floor spaces that meet the requirements of FEMA/FIA TB 11-1.

159 160
CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL CODE – MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CALIFORNIA CHAPTER 5 – FLOORS
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS 1 2 3 4
Adopt entire chapter                                      
Adopt entire chapter as amended
(amended sections listed below)
    X X                              
Adopt only those sections that are
listed below
                                     
Chapter/Section                                      
R502.1     X X                              
R502.11.1     X X                              
161 162

CHAPTER 5
FLOORS

SECTION R501
GENERAL

R501.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the floors for all buildings including the floors of attic spaces used to house mechanical or plumbing fixtures and equipment.

R501.2 Requirements. Floor construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads according to Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.

SECTION R502
WOOD FLOOR FRAMING

R502.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for joists, beams and girders shall be identified by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.

Note: See Section R301.1.1.1 for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings.

R502.1.1 Preservative-treated lumber. Preservative treated dimension lumber shall also be identified as required by Section R319.1.

R502.1.2 Blocking and subflooring. Blocking shall be a minimum of utility grade lumber. Subflooring may be a minimum of utility grade lumber or No. 4 common grade boards.

R502.1.3 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R502.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.

R502.1.4 Prefabricated wood I-joists. Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5055.

R502.1.5 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A 190.1 and ASTM D 3737.

R502.1.6 Structural log members. Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted to be accepted.

R502.1.7 Exterior wood/plastic composite deck boards. Wood/plastic composites used in exterior deck boards shall comply with the provisions of Section R317.4.

R502.2 Design and construction. Floors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, Figure R502.2 and Sections R317 and R318 or in accordance with AF&PA/NDS.

R502.2.1 Framing at braced wall lines. A load path for lateral forces shall be provided between floor framing and braced wall panels located above or below a floor, as specified in Section R602.10.6.

R502.2.2 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads as applicable. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive connection to the primary building structure cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be self-supporting. For decks with cantilevered framing members, connections to exterior walls or other framing members, shall be designed and constructed to resist uplift resulting from the full live load specified in Table R301.5 acting on the cantilevered portion of the deck.

R502.2.2.1 Deck ledger connection to band joist. For decks supporting a total design load of 50 pounds per square foot (2394 Pa) [40 pounds per square foot (1915 Pa) live load plus 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa) dead load], the connection between a deck ledger of pressure-preservative-treated Southern Pine, incised pressure-preservative-treated Hem-Fir or approved decay-resistant species, and a 2-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber band joist bearing on a sill plate or wall plate shall be constructed with ½-inch (12.7 m) lag screws or bolts with washers in accordance with Table R502.2.2.1. Lag screws, bolts and washers shall be hot-dipped galvanized or stainless steel.

R502.2.2.1.1 Placement of lag screws or bolts in deck ledgers. The lag screws or bolts shall be placed 2 inches (51 mm) in from the bottom or top of the deck ledgers and between 2 and 5 inches (51 and 127 mm) in from the ends. The lag screws or bolts shall be staggered from the top to the bottom along the horizontal run of the deck ledger.

R502.2.2.2 Alternate deck ledger connections. Deck ledger connections not conforming to Table R502.2.2.1 shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Girders supporting deck joists shall not be supported on deck ledgers or band joists. Deck ledgers shall not be supported on stone or masonry veneer.

R502.2.2.3 Deck lateral load connection. The lateral load connection required by Section R502.2.2 shall be permitted to be in accordance with Figure R502.2.2.3. Hold-down tension devices shall be installed in not less than two locations per deck, and each device shall have an allowable stress design capacity of not less than 1500 pounds (6672 N).

163

FIGURE R502.2 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE R502.2
FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

164
TABLE R502.2.2.1
FASTENER SPACING FOR A SOUTHERN PINE OR HEM-FIR DECK LEDGER
AND A 2-INCH NOMINAL SOLID-SAWN SPRUCE-PINE-FIR BAND JOISTc,f,g
(Deck live load = 40 psf, deck dead load = 10 psf)
JOIST SPAN 6″ and less 6″1″ to 8″ 8″1″ to 10″ 10″1″ to 12″ 12″1″ to 14″ 14″1″ to 16″ 16″1″ to 18″
Connection details On-center spacing of fastenersd, e
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
a. The tip of the lag screw shall fully extend beyond the inside face of the band joist.
b. The maximum gap between the face of the ledger board and face of the wall sheathing shall be ½″.
c. Ledgers shall be flashed to prevent water from contacting the house band joist.
d. Lag screws and bolts shall be staggered in accordance with Section R502.2.2.1.1.
e. Deck ledger shall be minimum 2×8 pressure-preservative-treated No. 2 grade lumber, or other approved materials as established by standard engineering practice.
f. When solid-sawn pressure-preservative-treated deck ledgers are attached to a minimum 1 inch thick engineered wood product (structural composite lumber, laminated veneer lumber or wood structural panel band joist), the ledger attachment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
g. A minimum 1×9½ Douglas Fir laminated veneer lumber rimboard shall be permitted in lieu of the 2-inch nominal band joist.
h. Wood structural panel sheathing, gypsum board sheathing or foam sheathing not exceeding 1 inch in thickness shall be permitted. The maximum distance between the face of the ledger board and the face of the band joist shall be 1 inch.
½ inch diameter lag screw with 15/32 inch maximum sheathinga 30 23 18 15 13 11 10
½ inch diameter bolt with 15/32 inch maximum sheathing 36 36 34 29 24 21 19
½ inch diameter bolt with 15/32 inch maximum sheathing and ½ inch stacked washersb, h 36 36 29 24 21 18 16

FIGURE 502.2.2.3 DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

FIGURE 502.2.2.3
DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

165

R502.2.2.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite deck boards. Wood/plastic composite deck boards shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

R502.3 Allowable joist spans. Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Tables R502.3.1(1) and R502.3.1(2). For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.

R502.3.1 Sleeping areas and attic joists. Table R502.3.1(1) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support sleeping areas and attics that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway in accordance with Section R311.7 provided that the design live load does not exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa). The allowable span of ceiling joists that support attics used for limited storage or no storage shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.4.

R502.3.2 Other floor joists. Table R502.3.1(2) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support all other areas of the building, other than sleeping rooms and attics, provided that the design live load does not exceed 40 pounds per square foot (1.92 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa).

R502.3.3 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilever spans shall not exceed the nominal depth of the wood floor joist. Floor cantilevers constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(1) shall be permitted when supporting a light-frame bearing wall and roof only. Floor cantilevers supporting an exterior balcony are permitted to be constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(2).

R502.4 Joists under bearing partitions. Joists under parallel bearing partitions shall be of adequate size to support the load. Double joists, sized to adequately support the load, that are separated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall be full depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.

R502.5 Allowable girder spans. The allowable spans of girders fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values set forth in Tables R502.5(1) and R502.5(2).

R502.6 Bearing. The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall have not less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or concrete except where supported on a 1-inch-by-4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by the use of approvedjoist hangers.

R502.6.1 Floor systems. Joists framing from opposite sides over a bearing support shall lap a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) and shall be nailed together with a minimum three 10d face nails. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to or greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted.

R502.6.2 Joist framing. Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by approved framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

R502.7 Lateral restraint at supports. Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attachment to a full-depth header, band or rim joist, or to an adjoining stud or shall be otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent rotation.

Exceptions:

  1. Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer's recommendations.
  2. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, lateral restraint shall also be provided at each intermediate support.

R502.7.1 Bridging. Joists exceeding a nominal 2 inches by 12 inches (51 mm by 305 mm) shall be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), or a continuous 1-inch-by-3-inch (25.4 mm by 76 mm) strip nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicular to joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm).

Exception: Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer's recommendations.

R502.8 Drilling and notching. Structural floor members shall not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations specified in this section. See Figure R502.8.

R502.8.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumber joists, refers and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal thickness shall not be notches except at the ends of the members. The diameter of holes bored or cut into members shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the top or bottom of the member, or to any other hole located in the member. Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the notch.

R502.8.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited except where permitted by the manufacture's recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.

R502.9 Fastening. Floor framing shall be nailed in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Where posts and beam or girder construction is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement.

166
TABLE R502.3.1(1)
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf,L/Δ = 360)a
JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2×6 2×8 2×10 2×12 2×6 2×8 2×10 2×12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.
a. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories D0,D1 and D2 shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.
12 Douglas fir-larch SS 12-6 16-6 21-0 25-7 12-6 16-6 21-0 25-7
Douglas fir-larch #1 12-0 15-10 20-3 24-8 12-0 15-7 19-0 22-0
Douglas fir-larch #2 11-10 15-7 19-10 23-0 11-6 14-7 17-9 20-7
Douglas fir-larch #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Hem-fir SS 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2
Hem-fir #1 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7 11-7 15-2 18-6 21-6
Hem-fir #2 11-10 14-6 18-6 22-6 11-0 14-4 17-6 20-4
Hem-fir #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Southern pine SS 12-3 16-2 20-8 25-1 12-3 16-2 20-8 25-1
Southern pine #1 12-0 15-10 20-3 24-8 12-0 15-10 20-3 24-8
Southern pine #2 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2 11-10 15-7 18-7 21-9
Southern pine #3 10-5 13-3 15-8 18-8 9-4 11-11 14-0 16-8
Spruce-pine-fir SS 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7
Spruce-pine-fir #1 11-3 14-11 19-0 23-0 11-3 14-7 17-9 20-7
Spruce-pine-fir #2 11-3 14-11 19-0 23-0 11-3 14-7 17-9 20-7
Spruce-pine-fir #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
16 Douglas fir-larch SS 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-0
Douglas fir-larch #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 21-4 10-8 13-6 16-5 19-1
Douglas fir-larch #2 10-9 14-1 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Douglas fir-larch #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
Hem-fir SS 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11
Hem-fir #1 10-6 13-10 17-8 20-9 10-4 13-1 16-0 18-7
Hem-fir #2 10-0 13-2 16-10 19-8 9-10 12-5 15-2 17-7
Hem-fir #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
Southern pine SS 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10
Southern pine #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-5 10-11 14-5 17-11 21-4
Southern pine #2 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-1 10-5 13-6 16-1 18-10
Southern pine #3 9-0 11-6 13-7 16-2 8-1 10-3 12-2 14-6
Spruce-pine-fir SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-4
Spruce-pine-fir #1 10-3 13-6 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Spruce-pine-fir #2 10-3 13-6 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Spruce-pine-fir #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
19.2 Douglas fir-larch SS 10-8 14-1 18-0 21-10 10-8 14-1 18-0 21-0
Douglas fir-larch #1 10-4 13-7 16-9 19-6 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5
Douglas fir-larch #2 10-1 12-10 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Douglas fir-larch #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Hem-fir SS 10-1 13-4 17-0 20-8 10-1 13-4 17-0 20-7
Hem-fir #1 9-10 13-0 16-4 19-0 9-6 12-0 14-8 17-0
Hem-fir #2 9-5 12-5 15-6 17-1 8-11 11-4 13-10 16-1
Hem-fir #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Southern pine SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6
Southern pine #1 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-1 10-4 13-7 16-4 19-6
Southern pine #2 10-1 13-4 16-5 19-3 9-6 12-4 14-8 17-2
Southern pine #3 8-3 10-6 12-5 14-9 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-10 13-0 16-7 20-2 9-10 13-0 16-7 19-6
Spruce-pine-fir #1 9-8 12-9 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #2 9-8 12-9 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
24 Douglas fir-larch SS 9-11 13-1 16-8 20-3 9-11 13-1 16-2 18-9
Douglas fir-larch #1 9-7 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Douglas fir-larch #2 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Douglas fir-larch #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0
Hem-fir SS 9-4 12-4 15-9 19-2 9-4 12-4 15-9 18-5
Hem-fir #1 9-2 12-0 14-8 17-0 8-6 10-9 13-1 15-2
Hem-fir #2 8-9 11-4 13-10 16-1 8-0 10-2 12-5 14-4
Hem-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0
Southern pine SS 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11
Southern pine #1 9-7 12-7 16-1 19-6 9-7 12-4 14-7 17-5
Southern pine #2 9-4 12-4 14-8 17-2 8-6 11-0 13-1 15-5
Southern pine #3 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2 6-7 8-5 9-11 11-10
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9 9-2 12-1 15-0 17-5
Spruce-pine-fir #1 8-11 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Spruce-pine-fir #2 8-11 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Spruce-pine-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0
167
TABLE R502.3.1(2)
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/Δ = 360)b
JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2×6 2×8 2×10 2×12 2×6 2×8 2×10 2×12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft -in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.
a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches.
b. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2 shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.
12 Douglas fir-larch SS 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3
Douglas fir-larch #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-0 10-11 14-2 17-4 20-1
Douglas fir-larch #2 10-9 14-2 17-9 20-7 10-6 13-3 16-3 18-10
Douglas fir-larch #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Hem-fir SS 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11
Hem-fir #1 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 16-11 19-7
Hem-fir #2 10-0 13-2 16-10 20-4 10-0 13-1 16-0 18-6
Hem-fir #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Southern pine SS 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10
Southern pine #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-5 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-5
Southern pine #2 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-9 10-9 14-2 16-11 19-10
Southern pine #3 9-4 11-11 14-0 16-8 8-6 10-10 12-10 15-3
Spruce-pine-fir SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6
Spruce-pine-fir #1 10-3 13-6 17-3 20-7 10-3 13-3 16-3 18-10
Spruce-pine-fir #2 10-3 13-6 17-3 20-7 10-3 13-3 16-3 18-10
Spruce-pine-fir #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
16 Douglas fir-larch SS 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-1 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-0
Douglas fir-larch #1 9-11 13-1 16-5 19-1 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5
Douglas fir-larch #2 9-9 12-7 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Douglas fir-larch #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Hem-fir SS 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11
Hem-fir #1 9-6 12-7 16-0 18-7 9-6 12-0 14-8 17-0
Hem-fir #2 9-1 12-0 15-2 17-7 8-11 11-4 13-10 16-1
Hem-fir #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Southern pine SS 10-2 13-4 17-0 20-9 10-2 13-4 17-0 20-9
Southern pine #1 9-11 13-1 16-9 20-4 9-11 13-1 16-4 19-6
Southern pine #2 9-9 12-10 16-1 18-10 9-6 12-4 14-8 17-2
Southern pine #3 8-1 10-3 12-2 14-6 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6
Spruce-pine-fir #1 9-4 12-3 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #2 9-4 12-3 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
19.2 Douglas fir-larch SS 9-8 12-10 16-4 19-10 9-8 12-10 16-4 19-2
Douglas fir-larch #1 9-4 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-10 11-3 13-8 15-11
Douglas fir-larch #2 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Douglas fir-larch #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3
Hem-fir SS 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9
Hem-fir #1 9-0 11-10 14-8 17-0 8-8 10-11 13-4 15-6
Hem-fir #2 8-7 11-3 13-10 16-1 8-2 10-4 12-8 14-8
Hem-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3
Southern pine SS 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6
Southern pine #1 9-4 12-4 15-9 19-2 9-4 12-4 14-11 17-9
Southern pine #2 9-2 12-1 14-8 17-2 8-8 11-3 13-5 15-8
Southern pine #3 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2 6-9 8-7 10-1 12-1
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-0 11-10 15-1 18-4 9-0 11-10 15-1 17-9
Spruce-pine-fir 8-9 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Spruce-pine-fir #2 8-9 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Spruce-pine-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3
24 Douglas fir-larch SS 9-0 11-11 15-2 18-5 9-0 11-11 14-9 17-1
Douglas fir-larch #1 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Douglas fir-larch #2 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Douglas fir-larch #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1
Hem-fir SS 8-6 11-3 14-4 17-5 8-6 11-3 14-4 16-10a
Hem-fir #1 8-4 10-9 13-1 15-2 7-9 9-9 11-11 13-10
Hem-fir #2 7-11 10-2 12-5 14-4 7-4 9-3 11-4 13-1
Hem-fir #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1
Southern pine SS 8-10 11-8 14-11 18-1 8-10 11-8 14-11 18-1
Southern pine #1 8-8 11-5 14-7 17-5 8-8 11-3 13-4 15-11
Southern pine #2 8-6 11-0 13-1 15-5 7-9 10-0 12-0 14-0
Southern pine #3 6-7 8-5 9-11 11-10 6-0 7-8 9-1 10-9
Spruce-pine-fir SS 8-4 11-0 14-0 17-0 8-4 11-0 13-8 15-11
Spruce-pine-fir #1 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Spruce-pine-fir #2 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Spruce-pine-fir #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1
168
TABLE R502.3.3(1)
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING LIGHT-FRAME EXTERIOR BEARING WALL AND ROOF ONLYa,b,c,f,g,h (Floor Live Load ≤ 40 psf, Roof Live Load ≤ 20 psf)
Member & Spacing Maximum Cantilever Span (Uplift Force at Backspan Support in Lbs.)d,e
Ground Snow Load
≤ 20 psf 30 psf 50 psf 70 psf
Roof Width Roof Width Roof Width Roof Width
24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Tabulated values are for clear-span roof supported solely by exterior bearing walls.
b. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members.
c. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 3:1.
d. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.
e. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 3:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 3 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (3/backspan ratio).
f. See Section R301.2.2.2.5, Item 1, for additional limitations on cantilevered floor joists for detached one-and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category D0, D1, or D2 and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, D0,D1 or D2.
g. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end.
h. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for building widths and ground snow loads other than shown.
2× 8 @ 12″ 20″
(177)
15″
(227)
18″
(209)
2 × 10 @ 16″ 29″
(228)
21″
(267)
16″
(364)
26″
(271)
18″
(354)
20″
(375)
2 × 10 @ 12″ 36″
(166)
26″
(219)
20″
(270)
34″
(198)
22″
(263)
16″
(324)
26″
(277)
19″
(356)
2 × 12 @ 16″ 32″
(287)
25″
(356)
36″
(263)
29″
(345)
21″
(428)
29″
(367)
20″
(484)
23″
(471)
2 × 12 @ 12″ 42″
(209)
31″
(263)
37″
(253)
27″
(317)
36″
(271)
27″
(358)
17″
(447)
31″
(348)
91″
(462)
2 × 12 @ 8″ 48″
(136)
45″
(169)
48″
(164)
38″
(206)
40″
(233)
26″
(294)
36″
(230)
29″
(304)
18″
(379)
TABLE R502.3.3(2)
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING EXTERIOR BALCONYa,b,e,f
Member Size Spacing Maximum Cantilever Span (Uplift Force at Backspan Support in lb)c,d
Ground Snow Load
≤30 psf 50 psf 70 psf
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members.
b. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 2:1.
c. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.
d. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 2:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 2 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (2/backspan ration).
e. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end.
f. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for ground snow loads other than shown.
2×8 12″ 42″ (139) 39″ (156) 34″ (165)
2×8 16″ 36″ (151) 34″ (171) 29″ (180)
2×10 12″ 61″ (164) 57″ (189) 49″ (201)
2×10 16″ 53″(180) 49″ (208) 42″ (220)
2×10 24″ 43″(212) 40″ (241) 34″ (255)
2×12 16″ 72″ (228) 67″ (260) 57″ (268)
2×12 24″ 58″ (279) 54″ (319) 47″ (330)
169
TABLE R502.5(1)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
GIRDERS AND HEADERS SUPPORTING SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)a
30 50 70
Building widthc(feet)
20 28 36 20 28 36 20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Spans are given in feet and inches.
b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
d. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
e. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
Roof and ceiling 2-2×4 3-6 1 3-2 1 2-10 1 3-2 1 2-9 1 2-6 1 2-10 1 2-6 1 2-3 1
2-2×6 5-5 1 4-8 1 4-2 1 4-8 1 4-1 1 3-8 2 4-2 1 3-8 2 3-3 2
2-2×8 6-10 1 5-11 2 5-4 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-7 2 5-4 2 4-7 2 4-1 2
2-2×10 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-3 2 6-3 2 5-7 2 6-6 2 5-7 2 5-0 2
2-2×12 9-9 2 8-5 2 7-6 2 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-6 2 6-6 2 5-10 3
3-2×8 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-5 1 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-8 1 5-9 2 5-2 2
3-2×10 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-1 2 7-10 2 7-0 2 8-2 2 7-0 2 6-4 2
3-2×12 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-7 2 9-2 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-4 2
4-2×8 9-2 1 8-4 1 7-8 1 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-8 1 6-8 1 5-11 2
4-2×10 11-8 1 10-6 1 9-5 2 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-3 2
4-2×12 14-1 1 12-2 2 10-11 2 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-11 2 9-5 2 8-5 2
Roof, ceiling and one center-bearing floor 2-2×4 3-1 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-2 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1
2-2×6 4-6 1 4-0 1 3-7 2 4-1 1 3-7 2 3-3 2 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2
2-2×8 5-9 2 5-0 2 4-6 2 5-2 2 4-6 2 4-1 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2
2-2×10 7-0 2 6-2 2 5-6 2 6-4 2 5-6 2 5-0 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3
2-2×12 8-1 2 7-1 2 6-5 2 7-4 2 6-5 2 5-9 3 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3
3-2×8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-8 2 6-5 2 5-8 2 5-1 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2
3-2×10 8-9 2 7-8 2 6-11 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2
3-2×12 10-2 2 8-11 2 8-0 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-3 2 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2×8 8-1 1 7-3 1 6-7 1 7-5 1 6-6 1 5-11 2 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2
4-2×10 10-1 1 8-10 2 8-0 2 9-1 2 8-0 2 7-2 2 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2×12 11-9 2 10-3 2 9-3 2 10-7 2 9-3 2 8-4 2 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-7 2
Roof, ceiling and one clear span floor 2-2×4 2-8 1 2-4 1 2-1 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-5 1 2-1 1 1-10 1
2-2×6 3-11 1 5-5 2 3-0 2 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 2 3-6 2 3-1 2 2-9 2
2-2×8 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-6 2
2-2×10 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 3
2-2×12 7-1 2 6-1 3 5-5 3 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-4 2 5-6 3 5-0 3
3-2×8 6-3 2 5-5 2 4-10 2 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-7 2 4-11 2 4-5 2
3-2×10 7-7 2 6-7 2 5-11 2 7-5 2 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-10 2 6-0 2 5-4 2
3-2×12 8-10 2 7-8 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-8 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2
4-2×8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-7 2 7-0 1 6-1 2 5-5 2 6-6 1 5-8 2 5-1 2
4-2×10 8-9 2 7-7 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-7 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-2 2
4-2×12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-11 2 9-11 2 8-7 2 7-8 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-2 2
Roof, ceiling and two center-bearing floors 2-2×4 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-6 1 2-2 1 1-11 1 2-4 1 2-0 1 1-9 1
2-2×6 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2 3-8 2 3-2 2 2-10 2 3-5 2 3-0 2 2-8 2
2-2×8 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-7 2 4-0 2 3-8 2 4-4 2 3-9 2 3-5 2
2-2×10 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-8 2 4-11 2 4-5 3 5-3 2 4-7 3 4-2 3
2-2×12 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-6 2 5-9 3 5-2 3 6-1 3 5-4 3 4-10 3
3-2×8 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 2 5-5 2 4-9 2 4-3 2
3-2×10 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2 7-1 2 6-2 2 5-7 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-3 2
3-2×12 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 3 7-8 2 6-9 2 6-1 3
4-2×8 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2 6-8 1 5-10 2 5-3 2 6-3 2 5-6 2 4-11 2
4-2×10 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 2 7-7 2 6-8 2 6-0 2
4-2×12 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-8 2 9-5 2 8-3 2 7-5 2 8-10 2 7-9 2 7-0 2170
Roof, ceiling, and
two clear span
floors
2-2×4 2-1 1 1-8 1 1-6 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2
2-2×6 3-1 2 2-8 2 2-4 2 3-0 2 2-7 2 2-3 2 2-11 2 2-7 2 2-3 2
2-2×8 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 3 3-10 2 3-4 2 2-11 3 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 3
2-2×10 4-9 2 4-1 3 3-8 3 4-8 2 4-0 3 3-7 3 4-7 3 4-0 3 3-6 3
2-2×12 5-6 3 4-9 3 4-3 3 5-5 3 4-8 3 4-2 3 5-4 3 4-7 3 4-1 4
3-2×8 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-9 2 4-1 2 3-9 2 4-8 2 4-1 2 3-8 2
3-2×10 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-10 2 5-0 2 4-6 3 5-9 2 4-11 2 4-5 3
3-2×12 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-9 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-8 2 5-9 3 5-2 3
4-2×8 5-7 2 4-10 2 4-4 2 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 2 5-5 2 4-8 2 4-2 2
4-2×10 6-10 2 5-11 2 5-3 2 6-9 2 5-10 2 5-2 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-1 2
4-2×12 7-11 2 6-10 2 6-2 3 7-9 2 6-9 2 6-0 3 7-8 2 6-8 2 5-11 3
171
TABLE R502.5(2)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTING SIZE BUILDING WIDTH c(feet)
20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Spans are given in feet and inches.
b. values assume #2 grade lumber.
c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
d. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
One floor only 3-2×4 3-1 1 2-8 1 2-5 1
2-2×6 4-6 1 3-11 1 3-6 1
2-2×8 5-9 1 5-0 2 4-5 2
2-2×10 7-0 2 6-1 2 5-5 2
2-2×12 8-1 2 7-0 2 6-3 2
3-2×8 7-2 1 6-3 1 5-7 2
3-2×10 8-9 1 7-7 2 6-9 2
3-2×12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-10 2
4-2×8 9-0 1 7-8 1 6-9 1
4-2×10 10-1 1 8-9 1 7-10 2
4-2×12 11-9 1 10-2 2 9-1 2
Two Floors 2-2×4 2-2 1 1-10 1 1-7 1
2-2×6 3-2 2 2-9 2 2-5 2
2-2×8 4-1 2 3-6 2 3-2 2
2-2×10 4-11 2 4-3 2 3-10 3
2-2×12 5-9 2 5-0 3 4-5 3
3-2×8 5-1 2 4-5 2 3-11 2
3-2×10 6-2 2 5-4 2 4-10 2
3-2×12 7-2 2 6-3 2 5-7 3
4-2×8 6-1 1 5-3 2 4-8 2
4-2×10 7-2 2 6-2 2 5-6 2
4-2×12 8-4 2 7-2 2 6-5 2
172

FIGURE R502.8 CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING

FIGURE R502.8
CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING

173

R502.10 Framing of Openings. Openings in floor framing shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. When the header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header joist may be a single member the same size as the floor joist. Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a single header joist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmer joist bearing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm), the trimmer joists and the header joists shall be doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the header. Approved hangers shall be used for the header joist to trimmer joist connections when the header joist span exceeds 6 feet (1829 mm). Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

R502.11 Wood trusses.

R502.11.1 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with approved engineering practice. The design and manufacture of metal plate connected wood trusses shall comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design drawings shall be prepared by a registered design professional.

R502.11.2 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent rotation and provide lateral stability in accordance with the requirements specified in the construction documents for the building and on the individual truss design drawings. In the absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be braced in accordance with the Building Component Safety Information (BCSI 1-03) Guide to Good Practice for Handling, Installing & Bracing of Metal Plate Connected Wood Trusses.

R502.11.3 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without the approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of load (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater, etc.), that exceed the design load for the truss, shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting the additional loading.

R502.11.4 Truss design drawings. Truss design drawings, prepared in compliance with Section R502.11.1, shall be submitted to the building official and approved prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:

  1. Slope or depth, span and spacing.
  2. Location of all joints.
  3. Required bearing widths.
  4. Design loads as applicable:
    1. Top chord live load;
    2. Top chord dead load;
    3. Bottom chord live load;
    4. Bottom chord dead load;
    5. Concentrated loads and their points of application; and
    6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads.
  5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design values for conditions of use.
  6. Each reaction force and direction.
  7. Joint connector type and description, e.g., size, thickness or gauge, and the dimensional location of each joint connector except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface.
  8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member.
  9. Connection requirements for:
    1. Truss-to-girder-truss;
    2. Truss ply-to-ply; and
    3. Field splices.
  10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum description for live and total load.
  11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss members to enable the building designer to design the size, connections and anchorage of the permanent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on the truss drawing or on supplemental documents.
  12. Required permanent truss member bracing location.

R502.12 Draftstopping required. Draftstopping shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.12.

R502.13 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

SECTION R503
FLOOR SHEATHING

R503.1 Lumber sheathing. Maximum allowable spans for lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables R503.1, R503.2.1.1(1) and R503.2.1.1(2).

R503.1.1 End Joints. End joints in lumber used as subflooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at least two joists. Subflooring may be omitted when joist spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip flooring is applied perpendicular to the joists.

TABLE R503.1
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING
JOIST OR BEAM SPACING (inches) MINIMUM NET THICKNESS
Perpendicular to joist Diagonal to joist
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 675 and minimum E of 1,100,000 (see AF&PA/NDS).
b. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 765 and minimum E of 1,400,000 (see AF&PA/NDS).
c. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 855 and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see AF&PA/NDS).
24 11/16 ¾
16 5/8 5/8
48a 1½ T & G N/A
54b
60c
174
TABLE R503.2.1.1(1)
ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa,b,c
SPAN RATING MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS(inch) ALLOWABLE LIVE LOAD (psf)h,i MAXIMUM SPAN (inches) LOAD (pounds per square foot, at maximum span) MAXIMUM SPAN (inches)
SPAN ® 16″ o.c. SPAN ® 24″ o.c. With edge supportd Without edge support Total load Live load
Sheathinge     Rooff Subfloorl
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly.
b. Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension (strength axis) perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because of possible effect of concentrated loads.
c. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider.
d. Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports when span is 48 inches). Tongue-and-groove panel edges, or other approved type of edge support.
e. Includes Structural 1 panels in these grades.
f. Uniform load deflection limitation: 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 of span under live load only.
g. Maximum span 24 inches for 15/32-and ½-inch panels.
h. Maximum span 24 inches where ¾-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists.
i. Maximum span 24 inches where 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor.
j. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal ¼-inch thick underlayment with end and edge joints offset at least 2 inches or 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or ¾-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf.
k. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal ¼-inch thick underlayment with end and edge joints offset at least 2 inches or ¾inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span.
l. Allowable live load values at spans of 16″ o.c. and 24″ o.c. taken from reference standard APA E30, APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide. Refer to reference standard for allowable spans not listed in the table.
16/0 3/8 30 16 16 40 30 0
20/0 3/8 50 20 20 40 30 0
24/0 3/8 100 30 24 20g 40 30 0
24/16 7/16 100 40 24 24 50 40 16
32/16 15/32, ½ 180 70 32 28 40 30 16h
40/20 19/32, 5/8 305 130 40 32 40 30 20h,i
48/24 23/32, 3/48 175 48 36 45 35 24
60/32 7/8 305 60 48 45 35 32
Underlayment, C-C plugged, single floor e     Rooff Combination subfloor underlaymentk
16 o.c. 19/32, 5/8 100 40 24 24 50 40 16i
20 o.c. 19/32, 5/8 150 60 32 32 40 30 20i,j
24 o.c. 23/32, 3/4 240 100 48 36 35 25 24
32 o.c. 7/8 185 48 40 50 40 32
48 o.c. 1 3/32, 1 1/8 290 60 48 50 40 48
175

R503.2 Wood structural panel sheathing.

R503.2.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panel sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O437 or CSA O325. All panels shall be identified by a grade mark of certificate or inspection issued by an approved agency.

R503.2.1.1 Subfloor and combined subfloor underlayment. Where used as subflooring or combination subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall be of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2.1.1(1). When sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor underlayment, the grade shall be as specified in Table R503.2.1.1(2).

TABLE R503.2.1.1(2)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR SANDED PLYWOOD COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa
IDENTIFICATION SPACING OF JOISTS (inches)
16 20 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked except where nominal ¼-inch-thick underlayment or ¾-inch wood finish floor is used. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 psf.
b. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood.
Species groupb
1 ½ 5/8 ¾
2,3 5/8 ¾ 7/8
4 ¾ 7/8 1

R503.2.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable span for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(1), or APA E30. The maximum span for sanded plywood combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(2).

R503.2.3 Installation. Wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be attached to wood framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and shall be attached to cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2).

R503.3 Particleboard.

R503.3.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

R503.3.2 Floor underlayment. Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU and shall not be less than ¼ inch (6.4 mm) in thickness.

R503.3.3 Installation. Particleboard underlayment shall be installed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

SECTION R504
PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY TREATED-WOOD FLOORS (ON GROUND)

R504.1 General. Pressure preservatively treated-wood basement floors and floors on ground shall be designed to withstand axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live and dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist deflection requirements in accordance with Section R301.

R504.1.1 Unbalanced soil loads. Unless special provision is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil loads, wood basement floors shall be limited to applications where the different depth of fill on opposite exterior foundation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less.

R504.1.2 Construction. Joists in wood basement floors shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the foundation wall or directly against a band joist that bears on the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over lapped joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Sufficient blocking shall be provided between joists to transfer lateral forces at the base of the end walls into the floor system.

R504.1.3 Uplift and buckling. Where required, resistance to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by interior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls anchored in the supporting soil below.

R504.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material removed, and any fill material that is added shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uniform support of the pressure preservatively treated-wood floor sleepers.

R504.2.1 Base. A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granular base of gravel having a maximum size of ¾ inch (19.1 mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of ½ inch (12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth.

R504.2.2 Moisture barrier. Polyethylene sheeting of minimum 6-mil (0.15 mm) thickness shall be placed over the granular base. Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and left unsealed. The polyethylene membrane shall be placed over the pressure preservatively treated-wood sleepers and shall not extend beneath the footing plates of the exterior walls.

R504.3 Materials. All framing materials, including sleepers, joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 4B and section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited agency.

SECTION R505
STEEL FLOOR FRAMING

R505.1 Cold-formed steel floor framing. Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel floor framing members shall comply with the requirements of this section.

176

R505.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section shall control the construction of cold-formed steel floor framing for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length perpendicular to the joist span, not greater than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width parallel to the joist span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. Cold-formed steel floor framing constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (49 m/s), Exposure B or C, and a maximum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).

R505.1.2 In-line framing. When supported by cold-formed steel framed walls in accordance with Section R603, cold-formed steel floor framing shall be constructed with floor joists located in-line with load-bearing studs located below the joists in accordance with Figure R505.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:

  1. The maximum tolerance shall be ¾ inch (19.1 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.
  2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.

R505.1.3 Floor trusses. Cold-formed steel trusses shall be designed, braced and installed in accordance with AISI S100, Section D4. Truss members shall not be notched, cut or altered in any manner without an approved design.

R505.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall comply with Figure R505.2(1) and with the dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Tables R505.2(1) and R505.2(2). Tracks shall comply with Figure R505.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 1¼ inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for members shall be the greater of 3/32 inch (2.4 mm) minus half the base steel thickness or 1.5 times the base steel thickness.

R505.2.1 Material. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one of the following:

  1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33 and 50 (Class 1 and 3).
  2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33 and 50A.
  3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H and 50 Type H.

FIGURE R505.1.2 IN-LINE FRAMING

FIGURE R505.1.2
IN-LINE FRAMING

177

FIGURE R505.2(1) C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R505.2(1)
C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R505.2(2) TRACK SECTION

FIGURE R505.2(2)
TRACK SECTION

TABLE R505.2(1)
COLD-FORMED STEEL JOIST SIZES
MEMBER DESIGNATIONa WEB DEPTH (inches) MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches) MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches) MINIMUM LIP SIZE (inches)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in 0.01 inch, the letter “S” representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in 0.01 inch, and the letter “t” shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table R505.2.(2)].
550S162-t 5.5 1.625 2 0.5
800S162-t 8 1.625 2 0.5
1000S162-t 10 1.625 2 0.5
1200S162-t 12 1.625 2 0.5
TABLE R505.2(2)
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS
DESIGNATION THICKNESS (mils) MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS (inches)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
33 0.0329
43 0.0428
54 0.0538
68 0.0677
97 0.0966
178

R505.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:

  1. Manufacturer's identification.
  2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).
  3. Minimum coating designation.
  4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).

R505.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:

  1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.
  2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.

R505.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of ½ inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Floor sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel joists with minimum No. 8 self-drilling taping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws attaching floor-sheathing to cold-formed steel joists shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board ceilings shall be attached to cold-formed steel joists with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel connection, the required number of screws in the connection is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction factors in Table R505.2.4 when larger screws are used or when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up.

TABLE R505.2.4
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR
SCREW SIZE THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils)
33 43
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
8 1.0 0.67
10 0.93 0.62
12 0.86 0.56

R505.2.5 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching. Web holes, web hole reinforcing, and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.

R505.2.5.1 Web holes. Web holes in floor joists shall comply with all of the following conditions:

  1. Holes shall conform to Figure R505.2.5.1;
  2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member;
  3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);
  4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 2½ inches (64.5 mm);
  5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 4½ inches (114 mm); and
  6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

Framing members with the web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R505.2.5.2, patched in accordance with Section R505.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices.

FIGURE R505.2.5.1 FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES

FIGURE R505.2.5.1
FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES

179

R505.2.5.2 Web hole reinforcing. Reinforcement of web holes in floor joists not conforming to the requirements of Section R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R505.2.5.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of ½ inch (12.7 mm).

R505.2.5.3 Hole patching. Patching of web holes in floor joists not conforming to the requirements in Section R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted in accordance with either of the following methods:

  1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices where web holes exceed the following size limits:
    1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web; or
    2. The length of the hole measured along the web, exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.
  2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R505.2.5.3, Item 1, shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section, or track section in accordance with Figure R505.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be of the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of ½ inch (13 mm).

R505.3 Floor construction. Cold-formed steel floors shall be constructed in accordance with this section.

R505.3.1 Floor to foundation or load-bearing wall connection. Cold-formed steel framed floors shall be anchored to foundations, wood sills or load-bearing walls in accordance with Table R505.3.1(1) and Figure R505.3.1.(1), R505.3.1(2), R505.3.1(3), R505.3.1(4), R505.3.1(5) or R505.3.1(6). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Continuous cold-formed steel joists supported by interior load-bearing walls shall be con

FIGURE R505.2.5.3 WEB HOLE PATCH

FIGURE R505.2.5.3
WEB HOLE PATCH

structed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(7). Lapped cold-formed steel joists shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(8). End floor joists constructed on foundation walls parallel to the joist span shall be doubled unless a C-shaped bearing stiffener, sized in accordance with Section R505.3.4, is installed web-to-web with the floor joist beneath each supported wall stud, as shown in Figure R505.3.1(9). Fastening of cold-formed steel joists to other framing members shall be in accordance with Section R505.2.4 and Table R505.3.1(2).

R505.3.2 Minimum floor joist sizes. Floor joist size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Table R505.3.2(1) for single spans, and Tables R505.3.2(2) and R505.3.2(3) for multiple spans. When continuous joist members are used, the interior bearing supports shall be located within 2 feet (610 mm) of mid-span of the cold-formed steel joists, and the individual spans shall not exceed the spans in Table R505.3.2(2) or R505.3.2(3), as applicable. Floor joists shall have a bearing support length of not less than 1½ inches (38 mm) for exterior wall supports and 3½ inches (89 mm) for interior wall supports. Tracks shall be a minimum of 33 mils (0.84 mm) thick except when used as part of a floor header or trimmer in accordance with Section R505.3.8. Bearing stiffeners shall be installed in accordance with Section R505.3.4.

R505.3.3 Joist bracking and blocking. Joist bracing and blocking shall be in accordance with this section.

R505.3.3.1 Joist top flange bracing. The top flanges of cold-formed steel joists shall be laterally braced by the application of floor sheathing fastened to the joists in accordance with Section R505.2.4 and Table R505.3.1(2).

180
TABLE R505.3.1(1)
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION OR BEARING WALL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b
FRAMING CONDITION BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE
85 mph Exposure C or less than 110 mph Exposure B Less than 110 mph Exposure C
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per squares foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners). Bolts extend a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. Anchor bolts connecting cold-formed steel framing to the foundation structure are to be installed so that the distance from the center of the bolt hole to the edge of the connected member is not less than one and one-half bolt diameters.
b. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
Floor joist to wall track of exterior wall per Figure R505.3.1(1) 2-No. 8 screws 3-No. 8 screws
Rim track or end joist to load-bearing wall top track per Figure R 505.3.1(1) 1-No. 8 screw at 24 inches o.c. 1-No. 8 screw at 24 inches o.c.
Rim track or end joist to wood sill per Figure R505.3.1(2) Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails
Rim track or end joist to foundation per Figure R505.3.1(3) ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws
Cantilevered joist to foundation per Figure R505.3.1(4) ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws
Cantilevered joist to wood sill per Figure R505.3.1(5) Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails
Cantilevered joist to exterior load-bearing wall track per Figure R505.3.1(6) 2-No. 8 screws 3-No. 8 screws

FIGURE 505.3.1(1) FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION

FIGURE 505.3.1(1)
FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION

181
TABLE R505.3.1(2)
FLOOR FASTENING SCHEDULEa
DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS SPACING OF FASTENERS
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
Floor joist to track of an interior load-bearing wall
per Figures R505.3.1(7) and R505.3.1(8)
2 No. 8 screws Each joist
Floor joist to track at end of joist 2 No. 8 screws One per flange or two per bearing stiffener
Subfloor to floor joists No. 8 screws 6 in. o.c. on edges and 12 in. o.c. at intermediate
supports

FIGURE R505.3.1(2) FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1(2)
FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

182

FIGURE R505.3.1(3) FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1(3)
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1(4) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1(4)
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

183

FIGURE R505.3.1(5) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1(5)
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1(6) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1(6)
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION

184

FIGURE R505.3.1(7) CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

FIGURE R505.3.1(7)
CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

185

FIGURE R505.3.1(8) LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

FIGURE R505.3.1(8)
LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

FIGURE R505.3.1(9) BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS

FIGURE R505.3.1(9)
BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS

186
TABLE R505.3.2(1)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS—SINGLE SPANSa, b, c, d 33 ksi STEEL
JOIST DESIGNATION 30 PSF LIVE LOAD 40 PSF LIVE LOAD
Spacing (inches) Spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
b. Floor dead load = 10 psf.
c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches.
d. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads.
550S162-33 11′;-7″ 10′;-7″ 9′;-6″ 8′;-6″ 10′;-7″ 9′;-3″ 8′;-6″ 7′;-6″
550S162-43 12′;-8″ 11′;-6″ 10′;-10″ 10′;-2″ 11′;-6″ 10′;5″ 9′;-10″ 9′;-1″
550S162-54 13′;-7″ 12′;-4″ 11′;-7″ 10′;-9″ 12′;4″ 11′;-2″ 10′;-6″ 9′;-9″
550S162-68 14′;-7″ 13′;-3″ 12′;-6″ 11′;-7″ 13′;-3″ 12′;-0″ 11′;-4″ 10′;-6″
550S162-97 16′;-2″ 14′;-9″ 13′;-10″ 12′;-10″ 14′;-9″ 13′;-4″ 12′;-7″ 11′;8″
800S162-33 15′;8″ 13′;-11″ 12′;-9″ 11′;-5″ 14′;-3″ 12′;-5″ 11′;-3″ 9′;-0″
800S162-43 17′;-1″ 15′;-6″ 14′;-7″ 13′;-7″ 15′;-6″ 14′;-1″ 13′;-3″ 12′;-4″
800S162-54 18′;-4″ 16′;-8″ 15′;-8″ 14′;-7″ 16′;-8″ 15′;-2″ 14′;-3″ 13′;-3″
800S162-68 19′;-9″ 17′;-11″ 16′;-10″ 15′;-8″ 17′;-11″ 16′;-3″ 15′;-4″ 14′;-2″
800S162-97 22′;-0″ 20′;-0″ 16′;-10″ 17′;-5″ 20′;-0″ 18′;-2″ 17′;-1″ 15′;-10″
1000S162-43 20′;-6″ 18′;-8″ 17′;-6″ 15′;-8″ 18′;-8″ 16′;-11″ 15′;-6″ 13′;-11″
1000S162-54 22′;-1″ 20′;-0″ 18′;-10″ 17′;-6″ 20′;-0″ 18′;-2″ 17′;-2″ 15′;-11″
1000S162-68 23′;-9″ 21′;-7″ 20′;-3″ 18′;-10″ 21′;-7″ 19′;-7″ 18′;-5″ 17′;-1″
1000S162-97 26′;-6″ 24′;-1″ 22′;-8″ 21′;-0″ 24′;-1″ 21′;-10″ 20′;-7″ 19′;-1″
1200S162-43 23′;-9″ 20′;-10″ 19′;-0″ 16′;-8″ 21′;-5″ 18′;-6″ 16′;-6″ 13′;-2″
1200S162-54 25′;-9″ 23′;-4″ 22′;-0″ 20′;-1″ 23′;-4″ 21′;-3″ 20′;-0″ 17′;-10″
1200S162-68 27′;-8″ 25′;-1″ 23′;-8″ 21′;-11″ 25′;-1″ 22″-10″ 21′;-6″ 21′;-1″
1200S162-97 30′;-11″ 28′;-1″ 26′;-5″ 24′;-6″ 28′;-1″ 25′;-6″ 24′;-0″ 22′;-3″

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(1) JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID)

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(1)
JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID)

187
TABLE R505.3.2(2)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS—MULTIPLE SPANSa, b, c, d, e, f 33 ksi STEEL
JOIST DESIGNATION 30 PSF LIVE LOAD 40 PSF LIVE LOAD
Spacing (inches) Spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
For SI:1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm,1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
b. Floor dead load = 10 psf.
c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support.
d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) walls or beams.
e. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in the table above.
550S162-33 12′;-1″ 10′;-5″ 9′;-6″ 8′;-6″ 10′;-9″ 9′;-3″ 8′;-6″ 7′;-6″
550S162-43 14′;-5″ 12′;-5″ 11′;-4″ 10′;-2″ 12′;-9″ 11′;-11″ 10′;-1″ 9′;-0″
550S162-54 16′;-3″ 14′;1″ 12′;-10″ 11′;-6″ 14′;-5″ 12′;-6″ 11′;-5″ 10′;-2″
550S162-68 19′;-7″ 17′;-9″ 16′;-9″ 15′;-6″ 17′;-9″ 16′;-2″ 15′;-2″ 14′;-1″
550S162-97 21′;-9″ 19′;-9″ 18′;-7″ 17′;-3″ 19′;-9″ 17′;-11″ 16′;-10″ 15′;-4″
800S162-33 14′;-8″ 11′;-10″ 10′;-4″ 8′;-8″ 12′;-4″ 9′;-11″ 8′;-7″ 7′;-2″
800S162-43 20′;-0″ 17′;-4″ 15′;9″ 14′;-1″ 17′;-9″ 15′;-4″ 14′;-0″ 12′;-0″
800S162-54 23′;-7″ 20′;-5″ 18′;-8″ 16′;-8″ 21′;-0″ 18′;-2″ 16′;-7″ 14′;-10″
800S162-68 26′;-5″ 23′;-1″ 21′;-0″ 18′;-10″ 23′;-8″ 20′;-6″ 18′;-8″ 16′;-9″
800S162-97 29′;-6″ 26′;-10″ 25′;-3″ 22′;-8″ 26′;-10″ 24′;-4″ 22′;-6″ 20′;-2″
1000S162-43 22′;-2″ 18′;-3″ 16′;-0″ 13′;-7″ 18′;-11″ 15′;-5″ 13′;-6″ 11′;-5″
1000S162-54 26′;-2″ 22′;-8″ 20′;-8″ 18′;-6″ 23′;-3″ 20′;-8″ 18′;-6″ 167′;-5″
1000S162-68 31′;-5″ 27′;-2″ 24′;-10″ 22′;-2″ 27′;-11″ 24′;-2″ 22′;-1″ 19′;9″
1000S162-97 35′;-6″ 32′;-3″ 29′;-11″ 26′;-9″ 32′;-3″ 29′;-2″ 26′;-7″ 23′;-9″
1200S162-43 21′;-8″ 17′;-6″ 15′;-3″ 12′;-10″ 18′;-3″ 14′;-8″ 12′;-8″ 10′;-62
1200S162-54 28′;-5″ 24′;-8″ 22′;-6″ 19′;-6″ 25′;-3″ 21′;-11″ 19′;-4″ 16′;-6″
1200S162-68 33′;-7″ 29′;-1″ 26′;-6″ 23′;-9″ 29′;-10″ 25′;-10″ 23′;-7″ 21′;-1″
1200S162-97 41′;-5″ 37′;-8″ 34′;-6″ 30′;-10″ 37′;8″ 33′;-6″ 30′;-7″ 27′;-5″

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(2) JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP)

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(2)
JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP)

188
TABLE R505.3.2(3)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS—MULTIPLE SPANSa, b, c, d, e, f 50 ksi STEEL
JOIST DESIGNATION 30 PSF LIVE LOAD 40 PSF LIVE LOAD
Spacing (inches) Spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
b. Floor dead load = 10 psf.
c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support.
d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) walls or beams.
e. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads.
f. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in the table above.
550S162-33 13′;-11″ 12′;-0″ 11′;-0″ 9′;-3″ 12′;-3″ 10′;-8″ 9′;-7″ 8′;-4″
550S162-43 16′;-3″ 14′;-1″ 12′;-10″ 11′;-6″ 14′;-6″ 12′;-6″ 11′;-5″ 10′;-3″
550S162-54 18′;-2″ 16′;-6″ 15′;-4″ 13′;-8″ 16′;-6″ 14′;-11″ 13′;-7″ 12′;-2″
550S162-68 19′;-6″ 17′;-9″ 16′;-8″ 15′;-6″ 17″-9″ 16′;-1″ 15′;-2″ 14′;-0″
550S162-97 21′;-9″ 19′;-9″ 18′;-6″ 17′;-2″ 19′;-8″ 17′;-10″ 16′;-8″ 15′;-8″
800S162-33 15′;-6″ 12′;-6″ 10′;-10″ 9′;-1″ 13′;-0″ 10′;-5″ 8′;-11″ 6′;9″
800S162-43 22′;-0″ 19′;-1″ 17′;-5″ 15′;-0″ 19′;-7″ 16′;-11″ 14′;-10″ 12′;-8″
800S162-54 24′;-6″ 22′;-4″ 20′;-6″ 17′;-11″ 22′;-5″ 19′;-9″ 17′;-11″ 15′;-10″
800S162-68 26′;-6″ 24′;-1″ 22′;-8″ 21′;-0″ 24′;-1″ 21′;-10″ 20′;-7″ 19′;-2″
800S162-97 29′;-9″ 26′;-8″ 25′;-2″ 23′;-5″ 26′;-8″ 24′;-3″ 22′;-11″ 21′;-4″
1000S162-43 23′;-6″ 19′;-2″ 16′;-9″ 14′;-2″ 19′;-11″ 16′;-2″ 14′;-0″ 11′;-9″
1000S162-54 28′;-2″ 23′;-10″ 21′;-7″ 18′;-11″ 24′;-8″ 20′;-11″ 18′;-9″ 18′;-4″
1000S162-68 31′;-10″ 28′;-11″ 27′;-2″ 25′;-3″ 28′;-11″ 26′;-3″ 24′;-9″ 22′;-9″
1000S162-97 35′;-4″ 32′;-1″ 30′;-3″ 28′;-1″ 32′;-1″ 29′;-2″ 27′;-6″ 25′;-6″
1200S162-43 22′;-11″ 18′;-5″ 16′;-0″ 13′;-4″ 19′;-2″ 15′;-4″ 13′;-2″ 10′;-6″
1200S162-54 32′;-8″ 28′;-1″ 24′;-9″ 21′;-2″ 29′;-0″ 23′;-10″ 20′;-11″ 17′;-9″
1200S162-68 37′;-1″ 32′;-5″ 29′;-4″ 25′;-10″ 33′;-4″ 28′;-6″ 25′;-9″ 22′;-7″
1200S162-97 41′;-2″ 37′;-6″ 35′;-3″ 32′;-9″ 37′;-6″ 34′;-1″ 32′;-1″ 29′;-9″

R505.3.3.2 Joist bottom flange bracing/blocking. Floor joists with spans that exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) shall have the bottom flanges laterally braced in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws in accordance with Section R702.
  2. Continuous steel straps installed in accordance with Figure R505.3.3.2(1). Steel straps shall be spaced at a maximum of 12 feet (3658 mm) on center and shall be at least 1½ (38 mm) in width and 33 mils (0.84 mm) in thickness. Straps shall be fastened to the bottom flange of each joist with one No. 8 screw, fastened to blocking with two No. 8 screws, and fastened at each end (of strap) with two No. 8 screws. Blocking in accordance with Figure R505.3.3.2(1) or Figure R505.3.3.2(2) shall be installed between joists at each end of the continuous strapping and at a maximum spacing of 12 feet (3658 mm) measured along the continuous strapping (perpendicular to the joist run). Blocking shall also be located at the termination of all straps. As an alternative to blocking at the ends, anchoring the strap to a stable building component with two No. 8 screws shall be permitted

R505.3.3.3 Blocking at interior bearing supports. Blocking is not required for continuous back-to-back floor joists at bearing supports. Blocking shall be installed between every other joist for single continuous floor joists across bearing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(7). Blocking shall consist of C-shape or track section with a minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each adjacent joist through a 33-mil (0.84 mm) clip angle, bent web of blocking or flanges of web stiffeners with two No. 8 screws on each side. The minimum depth of the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum length of the angle shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm).

R505.3.3.4 Blocking at cantilevers. Blocking shall be installed between every other joist over cantilever bearing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(4), R505.3.1(5) or R505.3.1(6). Blocking shall consist of

189

C-shape or track section with minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each adjacent joist through bent web of blocking, 33 mil clip angle or flange of web stiffener with two No.8 screws at each end. The depth of the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist. The minimum length of the angle shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). Blocking shall be fastened through the floor sheathing and to the support with three No. 8 screws (top and bottom).

R505.3.4 Bearing stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners shall be installed at each joist bearing location in accordance with this section, except for joists lapped over an interior support not carrying a load-bearing wall above. Floor joists supporting jamb studs with multiple members shall have two bearing stiffeners in accordance with Figure R505.3.4(1). Bearing stiffeners shall be fabricated from a C-shaped, track or clip angle member in accordance with the one of following:

  1. C-shaped bearing stiffeners:
    1. Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness.
    2. Where the joist is carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be at least the same designation thickness as the wall stud above.
  2. Track bearing stiffeners:
    1. Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 43 mil (1.09 mm) thickness.
    2. Where the joist is carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be at least one designation thickness greater than the wall stud above.
  3. Clip angle bearing stiffeners: Where the clip angle bearing stiffener is fastened to both the web of the member it is stiffening and an adjacent rim track using the fastener pattern shown in Figure R505.3.4(2), the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 2-inch by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) angle sized in accordance with Tables R505.3.4(1), R505.3.4(2), R505.3.4(3), and R505.3.4(4).

The minimum length of a bearing stiffener shall be the depth of member being stiffened minus 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Each bearing stiffener shall be fastened to the web of the member it is stiffening as shown in Figure R505.3.4(2). Each clip angle bearing stiffener shall also be fastened to the web of the adjacent rim track using the fastener pattern shown in Figure R505.3.4(2). No. 8 screws shall be used for C-shaped and track members of any thickness and for clip angle members with a designation thickness less than or equal to 54. No. 10 screws shall be used for clip angle members with a designation thickness greater than 54.

FIGURE R505.3.4(1) BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS

FIGURE R505.3.4(1)
BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS

R505.3.5 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall not be cut or notched.

R505.3.6 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilevers for the top floor of a two- or three-story building or the first floor of a one-story building shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). Cantilevers, not exceeding 24 inches (610 mm) and supporting two stories and roof (i.e., first floor of a two-story building), shall also be permitted provided that all cantilevered joists are doubled (nested or back-to-back). The doubled cantilevered joists shall extend a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) toward the inside and shall be fastened with a minimum of two No. 8 screws spaces at 24 inches (610 mm) on center through the webs (for back-to-back) or flanges (for nested joists).

R505.3.7 Splicing. Joists and other structural members shall not be spliced. Splicing of tracks shall conform to Figure R505.3.7.

R505.3.8 Framing of floor openings. Openings in floors shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. Header joist spans shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) or 8 feet (2438 mm) in length in accordance with Figure R505.3.8(1) or R505.3.8(2), respectively. Header and trimmer joists shall be fabricated from joist and track members, having a minimum size and thickness at least equivalent to the adjacent floor joists and shall be installed in accordance with Figures R505.3.8(1), R505.3.8(2), R505.3.8(3), and R505.3.8(4). Each header joist shall be connected to both the header and trimmer joists with four 2-inch-by-2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) clip angles. Each clip angle shall be fastened to both the header and trimmer joists with four No. 8 screws, evenly spaced, through each leg of the clip angle. The clip angles shall have thickness not less than that of the floor joist. Each track section for a built-up header or trimmer joist shall extend the full length of the joist (continuous).

190
TABLE R505.3.4(1)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS (20 psf equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH × 2-INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story Middle floor in 3 story Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
For SI: 1 mil = 0.254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa..
800S162-33 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 68 97 97
800S162-43 43 43 43 43 54 54 68 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-54 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 68 97 97
800S162-68 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 54 97 97
800S162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 97
1000S162-43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 97
1000S162-54 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 97
1000S162-68 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 97
1000S162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 43 68 97
1200S162-43 43 54 54 54 97 97 97 97
1200S162-54 54 54 54 54 97 97 97 97
1200S162-68 43 43 54 54 68 97 97 97
1200S162-97 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97
TABLE R505.3.4(2)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS (30 psf equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH × 2-INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story Middle floor in 3 story Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
800S162-33 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-43 43 43 43 54 68 68 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-54 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 97
800S162-68 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 68 97 97
800S162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 68 97
1000S162-43 54 54 54 54 68 97 97 97 97
1000S162-54 54 54 54 54 68 97 97 97 97
1000S162-68 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 97
1000S162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 54 97
1200S162-43 54 68 68 68 97 97 97
1200S162-54 68 68 68 68 97 97
1200S162-68 68 68 68 68 97 97 97
1200S162-97 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97
191

FIGURE R505.3.4(2) BEARING STIFFENER

FIGURE R505.3.4(2)
BEARING STIFFENER

TABLE R505.3.4(3)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS (50 psf equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH × 2-INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story Middle floor in 3 story Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
800S162-33 54 54 54 54 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-43 68 68 68 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-54 54 68 68 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-68 43 43 54 54 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 68 97
1000S162-43 97 68 68 68 97 97 97 97
1000S162-54 97 97 68 68 97 97 97
1000S162-68 68 97 97 97 97
1000S162-97 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97
1200S162-43 97 97 97 97
1200S162-54 97 97 97
1200S162-68 97 97 97 97
1200S162-97 54 68 68 97 97
192
TABLE R505.3.4(4)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS
(70 psf equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH × 2-INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story Middle floor in 3 story Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
For SI: 1 mil 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
800S162-33 68 68 68 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-43 97 97 97 97 97 97 97
800S162-54 97 97 97 97 97
800S162-68 68 68 68 97 97 97 97
800S162-97 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 97
1000S162-43 97 97 97 97
1000S162-54 97 97 97
1000S162-68 97 97
1000S162-97 68 68 68 68 97 97
1200S162-43 97 97 97 97
1200S162-54
1200S162-68
1200S162-97 97 97 97

FIGURE R505.3.7 TRACK SPLICE

FIGURE R505.3.7
TRACK SPLICE

193

FIGURE R505.3.8(1) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(1)
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(2) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(2)
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

194

FIGURE R505.3.8(3) COLD-FORMED STEEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—6-FOOT OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(3)
COLD-FORMED STEEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—6-FOOT OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(4) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—8-FOOT OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(4)
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—8-FOOT OPENING

195

SECTION R506
CONCRETE FLOORS (ON GROUND)

R506.1 General. Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be a minimum 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick (for expansive soils, see Section R403.1.8). The specified compressive strength of concrete shall be as set forth in Section R402.2.

R506.2 Site Preparation. The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material removed.

R506.2.1 Fill. Fill material shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uniform support of the slab, and except where approved, the fill depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean and or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth.

R506.2.2 Base. A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course consisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone or crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (51 mm) sieve shall be placed on the prepared subgrade when the slab is below grade.

Exception: A base course is not required when the concrete slab is installed on well-drained or sand-gravel mixture soils classified as Group I according to the United Soil Classification System in accordance with Table R405.1.

R506.2.3 Vapor retarder. A 6 mil (0.006 inch; 152 mm) polyethlene or approved vapor retarder with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared subgrade where no base course exists.

Exception: The vapor retarded may be omitted;

  1. From detached garages, utility buildings and other unheated accessory structures.
  2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) and carports.
  3. From driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date.
  4. Where approved by the building official, based on local site conditions.

R506.2.4 Reinforcement support. Where provided in slab on ground, reinforcement shall be supported to remain in place from the center to upper one third of the slab for the duration of the concrete placement.

196
CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CALIFORNIA CHAPTER - WALL CONSTRUCTION
Adopting agency BSC SFM HCD DSA OSHPD CSA DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
1 2 1-AC AC SS 1 2 3 4
Adopt entire chapter                                      
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)   X X                                
Adopt only those sections that are listed below                                      
Chapter/Section                                      
R601.3   X X                                
R601.3.1   X X                                
R602.1   X X                                
Table R602.10.1.2(2)   X X                                
R602.10.5.4   X X                                
R606.1.1   X X                                
R611.1   X X                                
R613.1   X X                                
197 198

CHAPTER 6
WALL CONSTRUCTION

SECTION R601
GENERAL

R601.1 A